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Articles by Imadeldin E. Aradaib
Total Records ( 13 ) for Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  Mohamed A.M. Yousof , Imadeldin E. Aradaib , Tamadour M. Abdalla , AbdelRahim E. Karrar , Kamal E.E. Ibrahim , Mohamed A. Abdalla and Abdelrahim M. Hussein
  In this study, a nested Reverse Transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay, for detection of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in clinical samples from experimentally infected chicks, was evaluated. The clinical samples used included, blood, tracheal, cloacal, liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney and brain. The nested RT-PCR was performed in two amplification steps. In the first step, a pair of primers (nd and nd ) was used to amplify a 356 bp specific region in the F gene of NDV. In the second step, a nested pair of primers (nd and nd ) was employed to produce 216 bp amplification products, internal to the annealing sites of primers nd and nd . The 356 bp PCR products were amplified only from lung homogenate, cloacal and tracheal tissues, kidney, heart and brain. However, the 216 bp nested amplification was detected in all tissue samples collected from experimentally infected chicks. The nested amplification confirmed the identity of the first amplified product and increased the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay. RNA samples extracted from Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) or total nucleic acid extracted from blood of non infected birds failed to demonstrate the primary or the nested PCR products. The described nested RT-PCR assay provide reliable, rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detection of an outbreak of NDV infection among susceptible Birds.
  Mohamed E. Ahmed and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  A 14 year old female was admitted to Elshab Medical Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. As informed by the father, there was a history of cough for 2 months, chest pain for 2 months and breathlessness for 3 weeks. The X-ray and MRI revealed the presence of bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst. The patient was referred to thoracic surgery unit for thoracotomy of the left side of the chest. Because of the deteriorating condition of the patient, thoracotomy was initially performed in the right side of the chest to remove the giant hydatid cyst. A week later, thoracotomy was also performed to remove a ruptured pulmonary cyst from the upper lobe of the left lung, which was found infected with secondary bacterial organism. Molecular characterization rebelled that the cyst is of genotype 6 (G6) strain as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay.
  Haitham A. Albir , Suliman M. ElSanousi , Tarig G. Eldawi , Mohamed E. Ahmed and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  In the present study, conventional bacterial isolation, bacteriophage-based assay (FAST Plaque TB) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were evaluated for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A total of 47 mycobacterial isolates consisting of 38 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and 9 isolates of mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis complex were used in this study. In addition, nine reference strains of Mycobacterium consisting of 7 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one strain of Mycobacterium flavescens, one srtrain of mycobacterium duvalii were also used in this study. Conventional isolation is laborious, cumbersome and time consuming where it takes as long as 2 months for definitive diagnosis. The phage assay is sensitive and it takes only two working days. PCR is a rapid assay and definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis infection could be made possible within the same working day. The described bacteriophage-based assay could be used as rapid, sensitiveand specific method to support the currently available conventional methods used for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in developing countries.
  E. Mohamed Ahmed , Hassan Abu Aisha and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  A 50-years-old Sudanese woman was admitted to Elshaab Medical Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. She had a history of repeated pleural effusions and a family history of yellow nail syndrome. The patient presented with productive cough, dyspnea and chest pain. On clinical examination, her nails were yellowish-green in color and dystrophic in appearance, thickened and excessively curved. X-ray and CT scan confirmed the presence of fluid in the right side of the chest. On administration of intercostals tube a purulent exudate was collected in the drain from the right side of the chest. The purulent exudate (empyema) was attributed to invasion of the pleural effusion by secondary bacterial organism. Microbiological examination revealed isolation and identification of Pseudomonas stutzeri from the infected pleural fluid. As severe dyspnea and chest pain continued, thoracotomy was decided and the patient was referred to thoracic surgery unit. The removal of pus and decortication of the pleura resulted in improved respiratory condition of the patient. The present study describes the first report of a clinical case of recurrent pleural effusions in association with yellow nail syndrome in a Sudanese patient.
  Ahmed M.A. Osman , Imadeldin E. Aradaib , Abdel-Latif K. Ashmaig and Ahmed A. Gameel
  A nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay, for detection of intact and calcified hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus (EG)-complex, was developed and evaluated. The NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene was used as a target DNA for PCR amplification. Two pairs of primers, (EGL 1 and EGR 2) and (EGL 3 and EGR 4), were designed and used in 2 amplification steps. First, the outer pair of primers (EGL 1 and EGR 2), derived from a highly conserve region of NADH 1 gene produced a primary 435 base pair (bp) PCR product from different stains of EG-complex including, sheep strain (genotype) designated (G 1), Cattle strain (G 5), camel strain (G 6) and pig strain (G 7). Second, a pair of internal (nested) primers (EGL 3 and EGR 4), designed internal to the annealing sites of primers (EGL 1 and EGR 2), produced a 276 bp PCR product. The primary 435 bp and the nested 276 bp EG specific PCR products were easily identified following visualization onto an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. However, the primary or the nested PCR products were not amplified from DNA extracted from Cysticercus tenuicollis and Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stages of the adult dog cestodes Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The described nested PCR assay could be used to detect sheep, cattle and camel strains of EG-complex circulating in Sudan. This PCR assay could also, be used for rapid detection and differentiation of EG-complex from other related cestodes. This assay should be considered during an epidemiological survey of the disease in areas of endemicity.
  Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, for detection of ruminant-derived contaminants in processed animal feed was developed. The mitochondrial cytochrome-b (mtcyt-b) gene was used as the target DNA for PCR amplification. For detection of ruminant-specific mtcyt-b gene, a nested PCR assay was used in two amplification steps. First a 735-bp product was amplified using an outer primer pair (RSL1&RSR4), then a second amplification using nested (internal) primer pairs (RSL1&RSR3) produced a 483-bp product. The sensitivity of this nested PCR-based assay was found to be 10 fg (equivalent to 1000 copies) of mtcyt-b gene, extracted from ruminant whole blood. The PCR products were easily identified by size difference following visualization on an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. The described nested PCR assay could be used as simple and rapid methods for detection of ruminant-derived contaminants in animal feed.
  Khairalla M.S. Khairalla , Imadeldin E. Aradaib , Tigani Hassan , Ali A. Majid , Abdelrahim E. Karrar , Ahmed M. A. Osman and Osman A. Osman
  A nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay for specific identification of pork or swine-derived products in processed food and in animal feed concentrates was developed and evaluated. The mitochondrial cytochrome-b (mtcyt-b) gene was used as a target DNA for PCR amplification. Two pairs of primers (PSL1 and PSR2) and (PSL3 and PSR4), were used for the nested PCR in two amplification steps. First the outer pair of primers (PSL1 and PSR2), derived from a highly conserved region of swine mtcyt-b gene, produced a 1055 base pair (bp) PCR amplicon from swine DNA. Amplification products were visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels from 100 fg of swine DNA equivalent to 1000 copies of mtcyt-b gene. The nested primers (PSL3 and PSR4) produced a 361 bp PCR product, internal to the annealing sites of primers (PSL1 and RSR2). The nested amplification confirmed the identity of the primary amplified PCR product and increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay. The nested PCR with ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels detected the amount of as little as 0.001 fg of DNA (equivalent to a single copy of Swine-mtcyt-b gene). The specificity studies indicated that neither the primary 1055 bp nor the nested 361 bp PCR products were detected from DNA extracted from a variety of other animal species including, sheep, goat, cattle, deer, camel, horse, donkey, chicken and fish. Application of this nested PCR to processed food including, fresh pork, smoked ham, marinated pork, canned luncheon, petís food, poultry feed resulted in amplification of the swine specific PCR products. The described nested PCR provides a valuable tool to authenticate the presence of swine-derived product in processed food and in commercial animal feed concentrates.
  Salah M.M. Elamin , Tawfig E. Mohammed , Mohammed M. Salih , Mohammed A. Abdalla , Mohamed E.H. Mohamed , Rihab A. Omer , Abdelrahim Karrar and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  The double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome segments of the Sudanese isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV) were analysed by agarose gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). EHDV serotype 1 and 2 are enzootic in the United States whereas EHDV-4 and an untyped isolate designated EHDV-318 are enzootic in the Sudan. The dsRNA genome segments profiles of the Sudanese EHDV serotypes 4 and EHDV-318 were compared with those of North American EHDV serotypes 1 and 2. Both systems (agarose gel and SDS-PAGE) showed 10 segments for each virus isolate, which is characteristic pattern of EHDV serogroup. The agarose gel showed identical genome profiles for all Sudanese and North American serotypes of EHDV serogroup. However, SDS-PAGE system was able to detect genetic variation between Sudanese and North American EHDV serogroups and among the Sudanese serotypes of EHDV. The results of this study suggested that, the agarose gel electrophoresis could be used as a supportive or complementary method to facilitate tentative diagnosis of EHDV infection in susceptible animal populations. In addition, the SDS-PAGE could also be used to detect genetic diversity among topotypes of EHDV serogroup from the African or North American continents.
  Kairalla M.S. Khairalla , Badr E. Hago , Tigani Hassan , Ali A. Majid , El-Amin Dafalla , Abdul E. Karrar and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  Pork consumption is prohibited in some religions. Therefore, religious people are adament about importing processed food, which may contain or has been contaminated with pork or swine-derived products. In Sudan, no reliable assays exist for detecting the presence of pork in processed food. Currently, regulatory officials rely on a paper trail for this verification. To address the void in scientific regulatory monitoring, a means of a reliable, rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of pork in processed food is urgently needed. The swine mitochondrial cytochrome-b (mtcyt-b) gene was used as a target DNA for PCR amplification. Using a pair of primers (PSL1 and PSR4), the mtcyt-b PCR resulted in amplification of a 525 base pair (bp) PCR product. The sensitivity of this mtcyt-b PCR was found to be 100 fg of DNA (equivalent to 1000 copies) as determined by DNA concentration and number of copies of mtcyt-b DNA, extracted from whole blood sample obtained from pigs. The mtcyt-b PCR assay provides a simple, rapid and reliable method for detection and identification of fresh, marinated or cocked pork in processed food produced for human consumption. In addition, this PCR assay should support future policies regarding import regulations for food industry.
  Safa A. Sherfi , Hamid A. Dirar , Badr E. Hago , Mohamed E. Ahmed , Hassan A. Musa , Hassan Abu Aisha and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  The potential of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), as a means of detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA in suspected environmental samples, was studied. Using a pair of outer primers P1 and P2, selected from uidA gene, which encodes E. coli glucuronidase, the PCR-based assay resulted in amplification of a 486 base pair (bp) PCR product. E. coli strains from different environmental sources including recycled and drinking water as well as stagnant water were detected by this nested PCR-based assay. Amplification products were visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. The sensitivity of the PCR assay was 100 fg of bacterial DNA with ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Using a pair of internal (nested) primers P3 and P4, the nested PCR produced a 186 bp PCR product. The nested PCR increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay by 1,000 times and specific PCR products were detected from 0.1 fg of bacterial DNA. Amplification product was not detected when the nested PCR-based assay was applied to DNA from other related bacteria including, Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Proteus or nucleic acid-free water. Application of this nested PCR-based assay to environmental samples resulted in direct detection of E. coli DNA from sewage water, tap water, drinking water at Shambat Campus, University of Khartoum, Sudan. This nested PCR-based assay should provide a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for direct detection and quantification of E. coli in environmental samples suspected to contain the organism.
  Mohamed E. Ahmed and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  A 14 year old female was admitted to Elshab Medical Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. As informed by the father, there was a history of cough for 2 months, chest pain for 2 months and breathlessness for 3 weeks. An intercostals drainage tube was administered to alleviate the condition and to relief pneumothorax. The patient was referred to thoracic surgery unit for thoracotomy of the left side of the chest. The second X-ray and MRI revealed the presence of a large hydatid cyst in the lower lobe of the right lung. The hydatid cyst was situated at the junction of the ventrolateral aspect of the upper lobe and dorsolateral aspect of the lower lobes of the right lung. Because of the deteriorating condition of the patient, thoracotomy was initially performed in the right side of the chest to remove the giant hydatid cyst. A week later, thoracotomy was also performed to remove a ruptured pulmonary cyst from the upper lobe of the left lung, which was found infected with secondary bacterial organism. An incidental cyst was also observed in the liver. Thus, this patient represents a case of multiple hydatid cysts. Conventional bacteriological examination revealed isolation and identification of Pseudomonus stutzeri from the infected hydatid cyst. Molecular characterization revealed that the cyst is of genotype 6 (G6) strain of Echinococcus granulosus as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay.
  Mohamed E. Ahmed and Imadeldin E. Aradaib
  A child was admitted to Elshab Medical Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The patient had a history of cough, chest pain for 2 months and breathlessness for 3 weeks. X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) revealed the presence of a large rounded hemogenous well circumscribed nodular opacity in the right lung and hydrothorax in the left side of the chest. On thoracotomy, a ruptured hydatid cyst was found invaded by secondary bacterial infection leading to empyema of the left side of the chest. The infected ruptured hydatid cyst was removed and empyema was taken care of by enucleation of the cyst and decortication of the pleura and removal of the puss. The surgically removed cyst was submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for parasitological and microbiological examinations. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of a few number of protoscolices associated with the inner wall of the hydatid cyst. Conventional bacterial isolation and characterization revealed the presence of gram negative bacteria, which was further identified as Pseudomonus stutzeri. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed inhibitory zones of bacterial growth around a number of antibiotic discs with highest sensitivity being against tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on thoracic empyema caused by this organism in childhood in the Sudan.
  Mohamed E. Ahmed , Imadeldin E. Aradaib , AbdelRahim E. Karrar , Badr E. Hago and Safa A. Sherfi
  Two patients (adult females) were admitted to Ahmed Gasim Medical Hospital, Khartoum North, Sudan, with history of severe combined mitral regurgitation and stenosis. The patients were referred to the thoracic surgery unit for mitral valvectomy and valve replacement. Both patients received early empirical prophylactic antibiotic therapy half an hour before as well as post operatively. However, they developed fever shortly after the operation. Blood samples were collected and submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for conventional and molecular microbiological examinations. Conventional bacteriological examination revealed that blood cultures were negative for any bacterial growth. However, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected a 486 bp PCR product specific for E. coli. The identity of the nucleic acid sequence was confirmed by nested amplification of a 186 bp PCR product from the primary PCR product. The scientific data presented in this study indicated that PCR provides a rapid method for detection of E. coli during bacteraemia, irrespective of their viability. However, conventional bacterial isolation methods failed to diagnose E. coli infection in patients receiving high doses of antibiotics.
 
 
 
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