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Articles by Ihak Sumardi
Total Records ( 3 ) for Ihak Sumardi
  Atmawi Darwis , Ihak Sumardi , Yoyo Suhaya and Sopandi Sunarya
  Background and Objective: Bamboo culm was composed of internodes and nodes. Anatomically, bamboo culm was composed of vascular bundles (VB) and parenchymal base tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphology features of culm and VB of bamboo Gigantochloa apus. Materials and Methods: The sample was taken from each internode of bamboo. The morphology of bamboo culm was determined by measuring the length, diameter and wall thickness. VB characterization was obtained through observation on each internode of bamboo culm. Results: The results showed that bamboo culm had internode length and inner diameter that varied from the bottom, increased at a certain height then decreased toward the top. The size of outer diameter and wall thickness of bamboo culm tended to decrease from bottom to top. VB on each internode was spread unevenly where the distance between VB looked more widened from the outer layer to the inner layer. VB distribution in the cross section had a crossing pattern (alternate). VB varied in shape and size from outer layer to inner layer of bamboo culm. The VB type on an internode of G. apus bamboo culm also showed variations where there was VB in type III only and some also were in type (III and IV) in each internode. Conclusion: The morphology of the bamboo culm was influenced by the morphology of young shoot. VB of bamboo G. apus spread unevenly with varying sizes, shapes and type from the outer layer to the inner layer.
  Eka Mulya Alamsyah , Ihak Sumardi , Sutrisno , Atmawi Darwis and Yoyo Suhaya
  Background and Objectives: Facing the increasing of wood demand from community forest for timber industries has been urged some Indonesian wood researcher to handle and investigate the suitability of wood species with adequate adhesive to produce the best quality of wood bonded products that could increased the value of the wood from those community forest. The purpose of this study was to utilize and find out the best bond quality of surian wood as a new raw material for laminated wood compared to the commonly wood species used, namely sengon. Material and Methods: Two-ply lamination was produced under room temperature condition. Each lamination were bonded by urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) and aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) resin adhesives at spread rate of 300, 200, 250 and 250 g m–2, respectively, then pressurized at 10 kgf m–2 for 24 h. After conditioned for a week at room temperature of 20°C and 65% humidity, it was immediately followed by physical and mechanical test under JAS standard. Results: The highest bond shear strength with the highest wood failure percentage was the laminated wood of surian bonded with API adhesive rather than PVAc, UF and RF adhesives. It showed that the best bond quality of laminated wood of surian was obtained for laminated wood bonded with API adhesive. Conclusion: Surian wood with the good bond quality than sengon wood has the high opportunity to utilize in Indonesian timber industries for the future, especially for producing the laminated wood bonded with API adhesive.
  Tati Karliati , Ihak Sumardi , Atmawi Darwis and Alfi Rumidatul
  Background and Objectives: Adhesives are one of the most important ingredients in plywood industry. Black liquor (BL), a liquid comprising waste from the pulping process, was used to reduce adhesive consumption in plywood production. The characteristics of BL and properties of phenol-formaldehyde-based black liquor as an adhesive on the performance of jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) plywood were investigated. Materials and Methods: Adhesive mixes were prepared using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) with the seven kraft BL-based adhesive added (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w). Three-ply panels were produced at glue spread of 180 g cm–2 , then pressurized at 10 kg f cm–2 at a temperature of 140°C for four minutes (PF-BL plywood). The physical and mechanical properties of PF-BL plywood were analyzed according to Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) and Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Results: The crystallinity of BL was 25.88%, mean while methanethiol (CAS) mercaptomethane, ethanedioic acid (CAS) oxalic acid, methanethiobis-(CAS) 2-thiapropane, phenol 2-methoxy-CAS guaiacol, phenol 2,6-dimethoxy-CAS 2,6 dimethoxy phenol were the dominant of chemical components in BL. Jabon plywood bonding with PF-BLadhesiveup to 30% of BL addition, met the SNI and JAS standards. The best treatment for PF-BL plywood was reached at 15% of BL addition. Conclusion: Up to 30% BL addition can be used to reduce PF resin in order to produce PF based plywood. BL was a potential material for decreasing the use of PF-based adhesive for plywood.
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