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Articles by Iftikhar Ahmad
Total Records ( 20 ) for Iftikhar Ahmad
  Muhammad Abid , Fayyaz Ahmad , Niaz Ahmad and Iftikhar Ahmad
  A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphorus rates on growth, yield and mineral composition of wheat in a saline-sodic silty clay loam [ECe 5.6 dS m-1; SAR 14.02 (mmol L-1)½] and silt loam [ECe 12.0 dS m-1; SAR 24.02 (mmol L-1)½] soils, respectively. Phosphorus was added @ 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, respectively along with a basal dose of 150 and 60 kg ha-1 nitrogen and potassium. The results revealed that growth and yield of wheat increased significantly with P rates over control in both the soils. However, the increase in growth and yield was more with similar levels of P in the case of silty clay loam than that in the silt loam soils. Results also indicated that maximum grain and straw yields were obtained when P was applied @ 100 kg ha-1 in both the soils. Nitrogen and P uptake by straw was recorded maximum at 150 kg P2O5 ha-1. The uptake of K+, Na+ and Cl¯ decreased with P application. It may be concluded that for wheat, phosphorus may be added @ 100 kg ha-1.
  Muhammad Aslam Khan , Khurram Ziaf and Iftikhar Ahmad
  Response of Zinnia elegans Cv. Meteor to different levels of nitrogen was studied during the year 2002. Vegetative characteristics viz., plant growth rate per week, plant height, number of laterals, length of laterals, number of leaves and leaf area, were positively affected by increasing the dose of nitrogen (from 5 to 20 g pot-1). Emergence of first flower delayed while number of flowers per plant, size of flowers and blooming period generally decreased at higher level of nitrogen. Nitrogen application @ 20 and 10 g pot-1 were most effective in improving the vegetative and floral characteristics, respectively.
  M. Nawaz , Iftikhar Ahmad and M. Saleem
  Four techniques to remove the byssinogenic agent ‘endotoxin’ from the cotton varieties grown in difference area of the punjab were applied. Autoclave technique was the best treatment for optimum endotoxin eradication alongwith minimum fiber damage. Cotton grown in Sargodha zone recorded the lowest level of endotoxin.
  Sh. Muhammad Nawaz , Iftikhar Ahmad and Muhammad Saleem
  A respiratory disease common in textile workers is observed to be caused by endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) attached to the raw cotton being processed in the mills. Different remedial measures were performed and their effect on the cotton fiber surface was studied under electron microscope.
  Iftikhar Ahmad , Nisar Ahmed Jamil and AfshanAthar
  Vat and reactive dyes were utilized in continuous dyeing of pure cotton and polyester. Cotton blended fabric samples. Comparative study of their shade matching and washing fastness results revealed that the reactive dyes might be suitable substitutes of vat dyes.
  Masuma Javeed , Najma Ikhlaq , Sarfraz Ahmad and Iftikhar Ahmad
  The name saccharin is aptly derived from Latin word " Saccharum " for sugar. It is a non- nutritive & non caloric artificial sweetener with its sweetness as 300t times more than that of sucrose solution of equal weight/concentration. Saccharin is manufactured as white crystalline powder which is stable at high tamp. (upto 300° C). Saccharin causes serious health hazards effects. A comparative analysis of saccharin in different food produces to evaluate them (from health view point) was performed by using gravimetric method and U.V. spctrophotmetric method.
  Iftikhar Ahmad , Nisar Ahmad Jamil and Nadeem Haider
  30s carded cotton yarn strength and irregularity was studied by changing the twist multiplier and spindle speed of ring machine during its manufacturing. The best results of yarn lea strength and evenness were obtained at the lowest spindle speed SP1 and twist multiplier TM1.
  S.M. Nawaz , Iftikhar Ahmad and Assad Farooq
  Yarn plying effects various properties of yarn. Particularly the amount and direction of twist in plied yarn exerts critical effects upon mechanical properties of yarn. The balanced ply structure is that structure when maximum fibres are parallel to the yarn axis and at this stage the plied yarn has the maximum strength. This structure can be achieved when the direction of spinning and the folding twist is opposite and the twist multiplier is 4.
  Sh. M. Nawaz , Iftikhar Ahmad and Assad Farooq
  Yarns reflect the characteristics of its constituent fibres and the characteristics of the fabric arise from the structure of the yarns, from which it is composed. PC blended yarn of 24s were prepared at five TM levels for both S and Z twists and then doubled in S and Z directions. Finally fabric samples were prepared at power loom using the doubled yarn weft. It was concluded from this study that the yarn with TM 4 at SS combination in folding was the best to achieve optimum fabric tearing strength.
  S.M. Nawaz , Iftikhar Ahmad and Mudassar Waheed
  Investigations were made to study the influence of linear density and different twist factors upon the areal density i.e. weight per unit area of single jersey, rib and interlock fabrics. The collective effect of all these structures for the areal density was found elevated with the increase of twist while the trend was reverse for courser yarn counts.
  Shamim Iftikhar , Fauqia Fahmeed , Iftikhar Ahmad and Abdul Hameed
  Powdery scab of potato is caused by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea. Current study differentiated the powdery scab from deep-pitted scab, which is closely related to common scab (Streptomyces scabies). Pathogen was characterized by light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy (LM) of spores of raised pustules and galls showed a characteristic spongy and honeycomb-like structure. Whereas, spore like bodies of deep-pitted lesions were rounded to oval compact and dark colored bodies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of spore balls of local isolate of S. subterranea revealed no difference in structure on comparison with spore balls of European isolate. Whereas, spore like bodies of deep-pitted scab showed difference in structure. Bioassay and ELISA tests did not show any correlation of spores of powdery and deep-pitted scab.
  Shamim Iftikhar , Amir Sultan , Anjum Munir , Shazia Iram and Iftikhar Ahmad
  Soil mycoflora play an important role in agricultural economy of a country. Soil borne pathogen produces serious losses to the yield of a crop. In rice Bwheat cropping system due to continuous cropping and reduced rotation, soil borne pathogens have become increasingly important with the yield decline. The current study was made to have the knowledge about soil borne fungi associated with rice and wheat crop in rice- wheat cropping system under zero and conventional tillage technologies. One hundred and seven fungal species belonging to 54 genera were isolated from foliar parts, roots and soil on general and specific media. Forty three genera including 59 species were isolated for the first time from rice, wheat plants and soil of rice-wheat cropping system. The fungi were categorized into four groups (pathogenic, saprophytic, toxin producing and beneficial). Aspergillus flavus was identified as only toxin producing fungus and isolated from both rice and wheat crops. Trichoderma spp were isolated from both crops and Paecilomyces spp were isolated only from wheat fields and are known as beneficial fungi. Among the pathogenic fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were isolated as pathogenic fungi both from rice and wheat soils. Alternaria trtiticina, Fusarium equiseti, F. grameniarum, F. poae, F. solani and Pythium sp. were isolated only from wheat fields whereas Nigrospora oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and Sclerotium oryzae were isolated only form rice fields. Total fungal colony counts isolated from soil on five specific media show some effect of zero tillage on soil mycoflora.
  Javed Iqbal Mirza , Shazia Hameed , Iftikhar Ahmad , Najma Ayub and R.H.C. Strang
  Four neem (Azadirchta indica A. Juss) products namely crude neem seed oil, nimbokil, crude neem seed oil terpenoid extract and neem leaf decoction were tested for their in vitro activity against mycelial growth, sporangial germination and sporangial production of Phytophthora infestans. All the products were found highly effective against the different life stages of the fungus. The compounds were evaluated both with and without being heat sterilized along the medium. The heat sterilized compounds were comparatively less effective as compared to the ones which were used without heat sterilization. The results show that neem products have potential for the management of potato late blight disease.
  M. Asif , M. Yaqub Mujahid , Iftikhar Ahmad , N.S. Kisana , M. Asim and S.Z. Mustafa
  A set of twenty elite bread wheat lines including one standard variety were evaluated in order to determine the selection criteria for identification of high yielding lines in bread wheat. The results showed that all varieties having highly significant variation for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, 1000-kernel weight, test weight and grain yield. Grain yield was positively correlated with 1000-kernel weight and test weight while the other traits i.e, days to heading, days to maturity and plant height showed negative correlation. The results indicated that 1000 kernel weight had positive direct effect on grain yield. It was concluded that selection be made considering 1000-kernel weight and test weight.
  M. Aslam Khan , Khurram Ziaf and Iftikhar Ahmad
  A study was conducted to observe the effects of two hormones viz., Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and Seradix-A on growth and rooting percentage of Rosa bourboniana cuttings. Experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design and there were four treatments, replicated four times. In the second experiment two Rosa species i.e. Rosa bourboniana and Gruss an teplitz were selected as rootstocks and three hybrid tea rose cultivars, i.e. Kardinal, Gold medal and Whisky mac were budded on them to study their compatibility, growth and development. Experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design with factorial arrangements and replicated thrice. Data were collected fortnightly on various growth and development indices. In the first experiment Seradix-A exhibited best results for different parameters of Rosa bourboniana followed by 1000 ppm of IBA and 500 ppm of IBA, respectively while control showed the minimum results which indicates positive effect of rooting hormones to increase sprouting and rooting %age. In second experiment cultivars Gold medal, Whisky mac and Kardinal showed maximum growth and flowering when budded on Gruss an teplitz as compared to Rosa bourboniana. As for as varieties are concerned, Gold medal performed better than Whisky mac and Kardinal.
  Sumaira Rizwan , Iftikhar Ahmad , Muhammad Ashraf , Shagufta Aziz , Tahira Yasmine and Adeela Sattar
  About 2.6 million women collect cotton from 9 major cotton growing district of Pakistan. Health hazards to women cotton pickers show that out of 2.6 million women, 2.2 million women get sick from their exposure to pesticides. Women are very actively involved in agricultural activities because agriculture is generally a family affair but women`s involvement in agriculture is wrapped in a mist of socio-cultural stereotype. Women cotton pickers complain of dizziness, muscular pain and suffocation due to acute pesticides poisoning because of inhalation of fumes. However as women access to the health care is minimum, there is no monitoring as to absorption of pesticides, pesticides level in blood and their effect on reproductive health. Several pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are known to be endocrine disrupters (EDCs). It was hypothesized that occupational exposure to pesticides after a spraying season causes changes in hormonal levels that might be detected in a short-term study. Analysis was performed to check the changes in reproductive hormones before and after a spraying season in the groups of women farmers exposed and not exposed to pesticides. The result of the study showed that both in pre season and post season significant differences for LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol were found both in cotton pickers and non pickers present at the different stages of their reproductive cycle. while a comparison with in the cotton pickers present at same stages of their reproductive cycle in both pre and post season also showed a significant increase of hormonal level in post season. From this study it was concluded that pesticides might be affecting the hormonal levels of cotton pickers in Khairpur area. Since it was a short term study a long term study is required to confirm this effect.
  Shamim Iftikhar , Iftikhar Ahmad and Atiq-ur-Rehman Rattu
  Powdery scab of potato was first reported in Pakistan in 1986 on the basis of tuber symptoms. However, the presence of pathogen was confirmed only from Astak valley in Northern Area in 1994 on the basis of serology, electron microscopy and bioassay. As the disease is both seed and soil-borne and seed potatoes are brought from Northern Areas to other potato growing areas, therefore, from quarantine point of view, it is necessary to probe different potato growing soils in Northern Areas for the presence of Spongospora subterranea. Probing of the soils of sixteen locations of potato growing areas in Gilgit and Hunza valley was done through bioassay by using tomato bait plants. Soils of eleven locations including Sust, Morkhun, Galapan, Gulmit, Shishcut, Aliabad, Nasirabad, Nagar, Thol, Naltre Bala and Naltre Paen gave root infection score for the presence of zoosporangia in a bioassay test.
  M.Y. Mujahid , N.S.Kisana , Zaheer Ahmad , Iftikhar Ahmad , S.Z.Mustafa and A.Majid
  Wheat is the staple food of the people of Pakistan grown on an area of about 8.4 million hectares annually (MINFAL 97-98). The wheat production is affected due to the varying degree of different biotic and abiotic stresses in the country. The success of a breeding programme aims at the development of high yielding wheat varieties which are developed by making recombinants for the traits of economic importance. Forty bread-wheat cross combinations were attempted during the year 1997-98 to determine the heterotic and heterobeltotic effects of the recombinants in Fl generation. The parental material also included local types from highland and dryland areas to utilize the useful diversity in the breeding programme. Maximum degree of heterosis (increase over mid parents) was manifested by the cross number 21 (C-273/WCB BO) for all the trails studied. The same cross-showed the maximum haterobeltosis (increase over better parents) for plant height, spike length, # of spikelets per spike and grain weight. Another cross (Local white/sannine) also showed the same effects for all the trials. There was a varying degree of heterosis in different crosses showing that different combinations can be exploited for the manifestation of heterosis and suggest the choice of selection of desirable parents for the development of better recombinants.
  Aly Khan , S. Shahid Shaukat and Iftikhar Ahmad
  The effect of horse and donkey manure and carbofuran on the population densities of three phytonematodes viz., Helicotylenchus indicus, Meloidogyne sp. (larvae) and Merlinius brevidens associated with garlic crop and garlic yield was investigated. Population densities of all three nematode species were markedly reduced by the manures but more prominently by carbofuran. Yield was substantially increased by the manures and the chemical nematicide carbofuran.
  Shazia Iram , M. Ashraf and Iftikhar Ahmad
  A survey was conducted to monitor foliar and root diseases caused by soil-borne fungi at the booting stage of wheat crop in main rice-wheat cropping areas of Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Narowal districts of Punjab. Foliar and root samples were collected from twenty-one key locations of four districts for the assessment of prevalence, incidence and severity of root rot and foliar spots. The highest mean incidence of root rot was 100% in Narowal and Sialkot whereas the lowest of 95% was in Gujranwala. The highest mean severity was 2.2 in Narowal while the lowest 1.5 was in Sialkot. Fusarium spp., Helminthosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria alternata, Macrophomona phaseolina, Coniothyrium spp., Mucor spp., Trichocladium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Humicola spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from the plants showing root rot symptoms. In Narowal and Sialkot the prevalence of foliar spots was 100% and in Sheikhupura 66.66%. The highest mean incidence 21.25% of foliar spots was in Sialkot and the lowest 15% was in Narowal. The highest mean severity was 4.5 in Sialkot and lowest of 3.5 in Sheikhupura. Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium spp, Fusarium spp. and Chaetomium spp. were isolated from leaves. During this survey it was concluded that root rot was more prevalent than foliar spots. Such types of survey should be conducted every year for the situation of diseases.
 
 
 
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