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Articles by Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
Total Records ( 9 ) for Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  Ali , A.O. Elmagli and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  The present study was conducted to investigate the compositional quality and the effects of storage conditions on the quality and shelf life of pasteurized milk in Khartoum State. Three areas were selected in Khartoum North according to fluctuations in electrical supply (permanent and intermittent) and immediate marketing. Sixty samples were collected from these areas and other parallel twenty samples were stored in the laboratory (Faculty of Animal Production) at 7°C (all samples were produced by the same dairy factory). These samples were examined to determine some physical and chemical properties of pasteurized milk. The samples of pasteurized milk showed that total solids was 4.03 to 11.32%, fat content ranged between 1 to 2.8%, protein was 2.13 to 3.6%, lactose was 2.13 to 4.8%, ash was 0.33 to 0.69%, titratable acidity was 0.14 to 0.86% and the freezing point was -0.41 to -0.67. The storage conditions revealed highly significant (p<0.001) effects on chemical and physical properties of pasteurized milk. Moreover, the results showed that 10% of samples were positive to the phosphates test (4 and 6% in storage 1 and storage 2, respectively). The present study concluded that the pasteurized milk distributed in Khartoum State by the selected dairy factory is of low quality. Hence it was recommended that quality assurance programs should be started to ensure that quality milk and milk products are produced and consumed in the country.
  Lemya , M. Warsama , Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir and O.A.O. El Owni
  The study was based on surveying thirty six samples of Sudanese white cheese from restaurants, supermarkets and groceries (Khartoum North). The comparison of the chemical composition (total solids, total protein, fat, ash and acidity) and some of the microbial hazards (E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus) associated with cheese were estimated. The means of total solids, ash, fat, protein and acidity for the samples were 47.8, 6.2, 14.0, 15.9 and 0.04%, respectively. The result indicated that there was non significant differences between total solids, ash, fat, acidity and protein in all batches in different sources. Positive isolates for E. coli (4), Salmonella typhi (4), Salmonella paratyphi (4) and S. aureus (8), were found in restaurants. Similarly 4, 4, 0 and 4 and 2, 2, 0 and 2 isolates of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, S. aureus and E. coli were found, respectively in supermarkets and groceries. The log counts of coliforms bacteria was 6.56006±0.52936, 6.5423±0.24873 and 6.4856±0.23278 and the log counts of total bacteria (SPC) was 9.46956±0.58882, 9.02652±0.01826 and 8.9713±0. 44743 for cheese samples collected, respectively from restaurants, supermarkets and groceries. Similarly, the log of Salmonella spp. counts was found to be 4.0612±0.0629, 2.0037±2.8337 and 4.97803±1.1807; the log count of Staphylococcus aureus was 3.40887±4.82087, 4.90646±6.93878 and 0 and the log of E. coli counts was 5.23337±0.53085, 0 and 5.33815±0.771346, respectively from restaurants, supermarkets and groceries.
  Osman A.O. El Owni and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  The present study confirmed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in total milk yield in mastitis-infected cows compared to healthy ones, during first lactation. Moreover, during the second lactation, the previously infected cows showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in milk yield, compared to the healthy and newly infected cows. Similarly, the newly infected cows in the third lactation revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in total milk yield compared to those from cows infected during the three successive lactations. However, they showed a significant increase (p<0.05) compared to cows infected during, both the first and third lactations. The newly infected cows in the third lactation showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) for milk yield on 305 days compared to cows infected during first and third lactations and cows infected during the three successive lactations. The lactation length showed a significant increase (p<0.05) only, when comparing cows infected during both the first and third lactations to those infected during both second and third lactation. The peak yield, although decreased due to infection, it only showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) during the second lactation, when comparing healthy and newly infected cows with those infected previously during, both the first and second lactations. In conclusion, mastitis reduces the production performance of the cows hence attention should be directed to the control of this costly disease.
  Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir , M.E.M. El Hassen and O. Yagoub Sanaa
  This study was carried out at Khartoum State to evaluate the hygiene and the quality of milk after preservation with Lactoperoxidase Enzyme System (LPS). The milk was collected directly from a traditional farm, the collection and examination of samples was done during April- June 2005. The result indicated that non significant differences were found for total bacterial counts, coliform counts and acidity in the treated milk samples. Moreover this study showed that total bacterial counts and the acidity were not affected by temperature (room and refrigerator) after treatment with Lactoperoxidase System (LPS). Also the treatment of raw milk with the LPS revealed non significant differences in acidity due to variation of storage temperature. However the result indicated that there were significant differences in total bacterial and coliform counts (p<0.001) of the raw milk stored at both room and refrigerator temperatures. The raw milk samples revealed the presence of five organisms and they were identified as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis. However the treated milk (with lactoperoxidase system) revealed the presence of E. feacalis, which take time before it was disappeared (9 days for refrigerated treated milk). Thus the present study encourages the uses of lactoperoxidase enzyme system for preservation of milk where cooling facilities are not available to ensure its safety. However the addition of the enzymes should be done by trained authorized persons.
  Nahid N.I. Mohamed and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  This study was carried out between August 2003 and March 2004. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected from supermarkets in Khartoum State. Sixty milk samples were collected during summer and other 60 during winter from the same supermarkets. The milk samples were examined for microbial quality that include total bacterial count, spore forming bacteria count, coliform count. Enumeration, isolation and identification of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and the presence of Brucella as detected by milk ring test were also estimated. The criteria used for identification of the isolates were reaction to Gram's stain, morphological appearance, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Similarly phosphatase test was done. The present study revealed that high average total bacterial count (5.63x109±2.87x1010 cfu mL-1) was found for the raw milk samples. Moreover, during summer the total bacterial count of milk (1.04x1010±4.01x1010 cfu mL-1) was higher than during winter (9x108±2.51x109 cfu mL-1). Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 46.7% of the milk samples with mean count of 4.9x104±1.29x106 cfu mL-1. During summer the mean count was 7.44x105±1.66x106 cfu mL-1, which was higher than the count during winter (1.61x105±2.3x105 cfu mL-1). Escherichia coli were detected in 2.5% of the milk samples with a mean of 6.0x105±7.94x105 cfu mL-1 and coliforms bacteria were detected in 82.5% with a mean of 3.32x106±1.43x107 cfu mL-1. Also during summer the mean was 5.15x106±2x107 cfu mL-1, which was higher than during winter (1.45x106±3x106 cfu mL-1). Spore forming bacteria were detected in 32.5% of the milk samples with a mean of 4.81x106±1.4x107 cfu mL-1. Also during summer the mean was 7.15x106±1.79x107 cfu mL-1, was higher than during winter (1.45x106±3x106 cfu mL-1). There was no Salmonella spp. in any of the milk samples collected during the present study, while milk ring test for Brucella showed that 44.1% of the milk samples were positive for Brucella. Moreover 54.4% of which were detected during winter and 45.61% were found during summer. Also during this study 44.17% of the milk samples were positive to phosphtase test. All the milk samples (100%) were found to be negative to the presence of formalin. Conclusions and recommendations for improvement of hygienic quality of marketed milk in Khartoum State were suggested. Sanitary standards should be established in this country so as to control milk production and marketing. Further studies should be done to evaluate safe and good supply of consumed milk.
  Mohamed Nahid N.I. and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  The present study was designed to evaluate the compositional quality of the milk offer for sale in Khartoum State. The milk samples (120) were collected equally during summer and winter from five shops in each of the four different selected areas in the three big cities of Khartoum State. The milk samples collected revealed average values of 2.9±0.05%, 3.70±1.12, 12.61±1.72 and 0.563±0.106% protein, fat, total solids and ash, respectively. The average values of titratable acidity, pH, freezing point and temperature of the milk samples collected from Khartoum State were 0.176±0.029%, 6.50±0.30, -0.535±0.034 and 25.2±15.19°C, respectively. Moreover highly significant differences (p<0.001) were found for the values of total solids, pH and temperature due to variations of the areas from which the milk samples were collected. Similarly the values of protein and ash of the milk samples showed significant variations at p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. Also higher significant differences (p<0.01) were estimated when comparing the total solids content of the milk samples collected from the different cities and the pH values of the milk samples collected during summer and winter seasons. However non significant differences were reported for the other measurements when comparing the milk samples from different areas and cities and for the samples collected during summer season. Moreover non significant differences were estimated for the milk constituents during winter season. The high temperature indicated that most of the milk samples were boiled at shops before sale which was proved by the inactivation of phosphatase enzymes. The relatively high freezing point of some milk samples might suggest the adulteration of milk either by addition of water or skimming of fat as it was found that the total solids and fat contents of some milk samples were low. On the other hand detection of formalin revealed that all the examined milk samples were free form formalin. The present study recommended the establishment of regulations and pricing structure of milk according to its compositional quality.
  Rihab Awad Hassan , Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir and S.A. Babiker
  The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of pasteurization and storage conditions on the chemical composition of fermented camel milk (Gariss). The Gariss which was used as a starter culture consisted of 2.65% fat, 3.13% protein, 0.51% ash, 7.37% total solids and 2.49% acidity. It had pH value of 3.8. The non pasteurized Gariss samples were found to attain high level of total solids, fat, protein and ash than the pasteurized fermented milk at the beginning of the storage period. Moreover, fat and protein, acidity and pH of the processed Gariss were found to show significant differences (p<0.05) in pasteurized samples that stored at 25°C. Also the mean levels of ash revealed significant differences (p<0.05) due to the pasteurization. Pasteurized and not pasteurized fermented camel samples both were found to withstand the storage conditions up to 243 h. The present study indicated that the chemical composition was affected by pasteurization and storage conditions (temperatures and storage periods).
  M.E. Abd El Gadir and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  The present study was conducted to determine birth weight, body weight, milk yield, milk composition, freezing point and acidity at second kidding of 8 crossbred goats. The does (average body weight was 33.5 kg) were milked once daily and weighed every ten days. The average birth weight of kids was 3.56 kg. Average milk yield was 1.237 L and the peak daily milk yield of 1.359 L was reached during 40-50 days of lactation. The averages milk constituents were 4.173±1.399% fat, 3.66±0.835% protein, 4.914±0.66% lactose, 0.733±0.245% ash and 13.48±1.727% total solids. The average freezing point was-0.561±0.0365°C and acidity was 0.203±0.035%. Milk constituents were plotted during the study. The correlation between body weight and milk yield, body weight and fat, while milk yield and total solids, freezing point and total solids and lactose content and freezing point revealed a negative value.
  Sanaa O. Yagoub , Nada A.M. Oshi and Ibtisam E.M. El Zubeir
  This study was done to investigate the presence of Salmonellae in Sudanese white cheese at Khartoum State. Two hunderds cheese samples were purchased from restaur ants, retailers and shops, distributed in Khartoum and Omdurman. The isolated Salmonella paratyphi (6%) were equally identifed as paratyphi A and paratyphi B. The sensitivity to antibiotics for the isolated Salmonella spp. were also tried and multiple sensitivity was observed. Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol and Ofloxacin were the most effective drugs against the tested isolates. The resistance was more frequent to Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Ampicillin, Penicillin and Co-trimoxazole. The present study concluded that Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B were isolated from cheese marketed in Khartoum State. Hence it is recommended that strict hygienic measurement and perodical survey and examinations should be done to ensure safety of food.
 
 
 
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