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Articles by Ibrahim Abu Bakar
Total Records ( 3 ) for Ibrahim Abu Bakar
  Mohd S. Azman Abdul Rahim , Jailani Salihon , Mashitah Mohd Yusoff , Ibrahim Abu Bakar and Mohd Rizal Martua Damanik
  Problem statement: Processing of food involving heat will contribute to loss of nutritional content, thus it is important to measure and control temperature and time to reduce the loss. Approach: Examine the effects of variations in boiling temperature and boiling time on the antioxidant activity of the boiling extract of Plecranthus amboinicus Lour. Fresh plants were boiled at 45, 60, 100 and 120°C for 1, 2 and 3 h respectively. The decoction was then filtered and the antioxidant activities of the extracted samples were measured on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Results: The antioxidant activity increased with the rise of temperature from 45-100°C but dropped when the extraction temperature was raised to 120°C. Two hours boiling time gave the highest antioxidant activities, but with no significant difference compared to 1 h boiling time (p>0.05). However, 3 h of boiling gave significantly (p<0.05) less antioxidant activity in the extract. Conclusion: Knowing the best boiling temperature and time will guide the future research in preserving antioxidant content of the plant when processing by boiling.
  Ibrahim Abu Bakar
  Muslim divine theological sources are two; namely, the Koran and the Prophetic tradition. Both sources explain about human suffering in this world and the coming suffering for some human beings in the hereafter. Some of the human sufferings are caused by their own thoughts, decisions and actions such as adulterers, polytheists and hypocrites while some other sufferings are inflicted by other human beings who decide to become evil doers such as thieves, rapists, robbers, cheaters and killers. The human evil doers make other humans their victims and inflict suffering on them. This study focuses on human suffering based on the Koran and the Prophetic traditions. Some of the sufferings take place in this world while some other sufferings are going to be in the hereafter for some human beings.
  Ibrahim Abu Bakar
  The Quran clearly and evidently states that humans are created by Allah who has many attributes, such as the omnipotent, omniscient, alive, sustainer, eternal and provider. The Quran is believed by Muslims to be the words of Allah revealed to his last and final prophet Muhammad in the 7th century AC. The Quran explains how humans are created and they have attributes different from Allah’s attributes. By using descriptive and deductive approaches based on some of the texts of the Quran, this study intends to classify and explain humans based on their beliefs or theological doctrines. Based on the Quran, this study also elaborates on the status of their beliefs and destinies of their adherents in this world as well as in the hereafter. This discovers that human beings are classified by the Quran into different religious adherents, such as Muslims, polytheists and the peoples of books since they have differences in their theological doctrines.
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