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Articles by I.T. Kadim
Total Records ( 6 ) for I.T. Kadim
  I.T. Kadim and P.J. Moughan
  The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in dietary formulation for broiler chickens. Two relatively poor quality protein sources, a meat-and-bone meal and a dried blood meal were used. The meals were subjected to the ileal assay and respective mean coefficients of digestibility of 0.58 and 0.67 were found for the first-limiting amino acid methionine+cysteine. Subsequently, each of the meals was the sole source of protein in semi-synthetic maize starch based diets. A casein containing semi-synthetic maize starch based control diet was also formulated. The two test diets and the casein diet contained equal amounts of methionine+cysteine, which was clearly first-limiting. Methionine+cysteine was supplied at 60% of the NRC requirement for the growing bird. Two further semi-synthetic maize starch-based diets were formulated, which contained either the meat-and-bone meal or the blood meal as the main sources of protein, but synthetic methionine was added so that the digestible methionine+cysteine content equaled that in the casein-based control diet. All amino acids other than methionine+cysteine were supplied in moderate excess of the requirements of the growing bird. The experimental diets were fed to broiler chickens in a conventional growth trial. Daily feed intakes were adjusted to achieve comparable feed and metabolizable energy intakes across all the diets. The significantly lower growth performance for birds on the unsupplemented meat-and-bone meal and blood meal diets indicated that the actual digestible methionine+cysteine level was lower in those diets compared to the control. That supplementation with synthetic methionine to give equal amounts of dietary ileal digestible methionine+cysteine restored parity in growth performance is evidence for the accuracy of the new ileal digestibility assay.
  I.T. Kadim , B.H.A. Al-Qamshui , O. Mahgoub , W. Al-Marzooqi and E.H. Johnson
  The efficacy of ascorbic acid in drinking water on performance of broiler chickens under closed and open-sided houses during hot (ambient temperature 36°C) and cool (ambient temperature 23°C) seasons were studied. The temperatures inside the poultry houses were 26°C (closed), 29°C (open-sided), 32°C (closed) and 37°C (open-sided) for cool and hot seasons, respectively. One-day-old chicks (432 birds) were housed in each closed and open-sided environment for each season. Birds were maintained under 23 hrs light and 1 hr dark cycle and offered ad libitum access water and feed. Broilers in both houses were randomly subjected to four drinking water treatments (9 birds in each 6 replicates/treatment): 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm ascorbic acid. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and rectal temperatures were recorded weekly. Ascorbic acid supplementation at 200-300 ppm was associated with a reduction in rectal temperatures during the hot season. Open-sided house depressed body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) during hot season. Compared to the control group, ascorbic acid improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 6%, 9% and 3% (cool season) and 8%, 11% and 5% (hot season). Birds supplemented with 200 ppm ascorbic acid had (P < 0.05) higher feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio than the control group during the cool season, while 300 ppm (P < 0.05) improved broiler performance including feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the hot season. Bird`s rectal temperature was higher (P < 0.05) during hot season in open-sided house and (P < 0.05) reduced by supplementing 200-300 ppm ascorbic acid. This study demonstrated that seasonal temperatures had a significant effect on broiler performance in open-sided house. Supplementation of drinking water with 200-300 ppm ascorbic acid ameliorated broiler performance in open-sided housing at high ambient temperatures.
  I.T. Kadim , B.H.A. Al-Qamshui , O. Mahgoub , W. Al-Marzooqi and E.H. Johnson
  High ambient temperature is one of the prominent stressors that elicits low meat quality characteristics in broiler meat. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation in drinking water on meat quality of broiler chickens reared in closed and open-sided houses during hot (ambient temperature 36oC) and cool (ambient temperature 23oC) seasons were studied. Four hundred and thirty two, one-day-old chicks were used for each house across the two seasons. Birds were maintained in 23 h light and 1 h dark cycles and offered ad libitum access to water and commercial broiler diets. Broilers in both houses were randomly subjected to four drinking water treatments (9 birds in each 6 replicates/treatment): 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm ascorbic acid. Pectoralis muscles were taken at 24 h postmortem and analyzed for ultimate pH, expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force value, myofibril fragmentation index, sarcomere length and colour. Pectoralis muscles collected during the hot season had significantly (p<0.05) higher pH, lower expressed juice, darker colour meat (L*) than those collected during cool season group. During the hot season, meat samples from chicken reared in an open-sided house had significantly (p<0.0) higher pH and lower lightness value (L*) than those reared in a closed house. Supplementation of drinking water with various levels of ppm ascorbic acid did not significantly improve meat quality characteristics of broiler chicken reared in open-sided or closed housing at high ambient temperatures.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , I.T. Kadim , O. Mahgoub , M. Al-Busaidi , S.M. Al-Lawati , R. Al-Maqbaly , S. Al-Wheebi and A.N. Al-Bakery
  The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four varieties of barley (Beecher, Jimah 54, Jimah 51 and Jimah 58) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated, representing four different varieties of barley and were evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the barley varieties than the local birds. Out of the four barley varieties evaluated in this study, Beecher variety had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient and digestible content for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for Jimah 54 was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The variability in digestibility and digestible content in barley varieties can be attributed to the high fiber levels and the presence of beta-glucan. The results suggest that the class of chickens and variety significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , I.T. Kadim and O. Mahgoub
  The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the protein sources than the local birds. Out of the four protein sources evaluated in this study, fishmeal had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for fish silage was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids for soyabean meal is related to the presence of; antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitor. Fish silage shows a great potential to be used as protein supplements for poultry feeding. The results suggest that the class of chickens and protein source significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.
  W. Al- Marzooqi , K. Al- Kharousi , I.T. Kadim , O. Mahgoub , S. Zekri , R. Al- Maqbaly and M. Al- Busaidi
  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of Prosopis juliflora pods as a partial replacement of corn as a source of energy for growing broiler chicken. The main objective of Experiment 1, an ileal digestibility assay, was to assess the nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora pods compared with corn for feeding broiler chicken. The two test ingredients, Prosopis juliflora pods and corn were given alone to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and apparent ileal digestibility of crude fibre. Prosopis juliflora pods had significantly lower AME content (10.64 vs 15.26 MJ/kg) and lower apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for crude fibre (0.24 vs 0.63) than corn (p<0.001). The objective of Experiment 2, a growth study, was to test the effect of exogenous enzymes on the nutritive value of Prosopis juliflora pods. Three Prosopis juliflora pods contents (5, 10 and 15%) with and without enzyme supplementation were evaluated. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of Experiment 2, 64 birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate carcase and meat quality characteristics. Substitution of corn by 10 and 15% Prosopis juliflora pods significantly depressed AME (p<0.001). Enzyme supplementation did not improve crude fibre digestibility. The inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods in the diets, except at 5% decreased average daily gains, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (p<0.001). Addition of Prosopis juliflora pods caused a significant increase in the weights of total digestive tract, pancreas and caecum (p<0.01). Addition of Prosopis juliflora pods or the exogenous enzyme had no significant effect on carcase or meat quality characteristics, haematology, serum biochemistry and sensory evaluation. This study indicated that Prosopis juliflora pods can be included at levels of 5% in broiler diets without affecting performance.
 
 
 
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