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Articles by I.R. Muhammad
Total Records ( 9 ) for I.R. Muhammad
  I.R. Muhammad , A. Mustapha , B. Mohammed , L.S. Abdurrahman and M.Y. Ahmad
  An experiment was conducted to determine the component and summative yields of Columbus grass and Centurion species in Semi arid zone. The treatment combination were seed rate of 30 kg ha-1 of Sorghum almum, 10 kg ha-1 Centrosema pascuorum each representing 100% sole pasture and their mixtures in the ratios of 25% S. almum: 75% C. pascuorum, 50% S. almum: 50% C. pascuorum and 57% S. almum: 25% C. pascourum laid out in a complete randomized block design using plot size of 4x2 m. Pasture was sampled to monitor establishment and physiological development from 14 Days Post-Planting (DPP) and thereafter at 2 weeks interval up to full bloom stage. At full bloom stage forage was harvested to determine Dry Matter yield (DM). Results obtained showed stand counts of Sorghum almum statistically (p<0.05) increased from day 14 and attained a maximum by 56 days. From 42 DPP and subsequently, mixture with 25 or 50% C. pascourum had higher (p<0.05) stand counts relative to other treatments. Pasture height varied from 25.1-28.5 cm at 14 DPP. Thereafter, from 42 DPP, differences (p<0.05) manifested up to 84 DPP amongst the treatments evaluated. The treatment with 25% C. pascourum had taller (p<0.05) sward stand relative to other factors. Sward grown in mixture were comparable (p>0.05) in fresh leaf (75-83%). Dry matter yield was significantly different (p<0.05) in both component and cumulative yield. The mixture with 50% C. pascourum was statistically superior to all other treatments. Higher (p<0.05) total DM yield was obtained with treatment that had 50% S. almum plus 50% C. pascourum. Cost-benefit analysis of production showed higher output and net benefit from the mixed pasture sward of 50% Columbus grass and 50% Centurion. Based on the results of the present study, commercial pasture production would be more economical from mixed pasture sward of 50% Columbus grass and 50% Centurion in the zone.
  I.R. Muhammad , Ashiru Rabi and A.Y. Abdullahi
  The objective of the study is to determine the proportion of foetuses destroyed due to the slaughter of pregnant sheep and goats relative to the total number of small ruminants in urban abattoir. Two studies were conducted. In study one, 150 structured questionnaires were administered to butchers while study two, data were collected at the main Kano abattoir for 2 months. Result of the survey showed butchers vary in age (< 20 to above 51 years). Youth were the main source of labour. All the butchers were males and mostly married (76.67%), they had secondary education and were mostly engaged in evisceration activities (50%). The structure of sheep and goats slaughtered at Kano abattoir revealed significantly higher (p< 0.05) number of goats relative to sheep. Also, significantly higher (p< 0.05) number of in-lamb sheep were slaughtered compared to in-kid goats. The study showed 34.3% sheep and 26.1% of in kid goats was slaughtered daily in urban abattoir. One out of every 3 ewe or 4 does slaughtered was pregnant. The data estimated 0.26 million lambs and 0.21 million kids were being destroyed annually due to the slaughter of pregnant animals. Reasons for the slaughter of pregnant animals advanced by butchers were either due to poor economic status or ignorance of the physiological status of the animals. It is recommended therefore, that antemortem inspection be conducted to identify pregnant animals for restriction or advice against their slaughter. Legislation prohibiting the slaughter of pregnant animals should be enforced. Government agency, Cooperative or NGO could organize the purchase of potentially healthy pregnant animals for rearing.
  P.O. Okaiyeto , I.R. Muhammad , I.R. Muhammad and A.A. Abubakar-Adee
  Beef cattle production is a crops-livestock economic activity in the core cattle producing States of Nigeria. This is because same animals are used in farming and haulage operations and later fattened and sold. Breeding is avoided because of its longer production cycle and thus, males are used. A survey of nine Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Katsina State was carried out with the view of providing information on beef cattle production and marketing. Results show that animals are purchased between 2.00 and 4.00 years and used for between 2-3 more years. During this period, they are grazed on natural pastures and crop residues. Ownership numbers were for Katsina, Dutsin-Ma and Malumfashi were 3.00, 3.00 and 4.00 pairs, respectively (i.e., within eight animals per household). Also, 59.00, 64.00 and 64.00% sourced their capital internally and only 5.00, 7.00 and 11.00% sourced it from the banks. Operating costs ratios were very low and were: 43.36, 36.50 and 29.02%, respectively. This activity is more profitable in Malumfashi axis because of its proximity to cotton ginneries that requires haulages to and from it and its by-products used as feeds. Dutsin-Ma axis follow, as irrigation activities in it require haulages of inputs and outputs; and by-products used as feeds. It is concluded that this is a profitable venture being limited by land and forage/fodder availabilities. Its amelioration can be enhanced by the development of community-based rangeland and pastures establishment schemes under the management of the farmers in the Wards and used by its registered members.
  C.U. Osuhor , R.J. Tanko , D.D. Dung , I.R. Muhammad and A.C. Odunze
  Sixteen Yankasa rams aged 18-24 months, weighing 25.4-31.0 kg were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups labelled A, B, C and D, each treatment comprising of 4 rams. Maize stover-lablab hay mixture in a 2:1 maize stover; lablab ratio was offered at 2, 4, 6 and 8% as body weight to treatments A, B, C and D respectively, in addition to 300g of concentrate per head per day in an individual feeding trial. Water was offered at 4kg per ram daily. Water refusal and left-over feed were recorded separately daily, before feeding in the morning. Samples of feed and faeces were analyzed separately for proximate constituents. Live weight changes were measured and used to adjust the levels of the basal diet throughout the 90 days duration of the trial. Results showed that the rams offered the higher level of the feed consumed more water than the rams on the other treatments. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in water consumption between treatments D and C, and between treatments B and A. But treatment D was significantly different (P<0.05) from treatments B and A. Daily water consumption was 2.65, 2.63, 1.87 and 1.75 kg per ram for treatments D, C, B and A respectively. Yankasa rams offered high levels of maize stover-lablab hay mixture required about 3 litres of water per head day for optimum utilization of the feed.
  A.K. Mohammed and I.R. Muhammad
  Clinical and necropsy cases of fatal polythene bag rumen impaction in cattle at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria is reported. Observed clinical signs in the affected animals were emaciation, inappetance, weakness and recumbency. Woven polythene materials weighing between 2.5 and 4.3 kg partially blocking the rumino-reticular opening were recovered at necropsy. A retrospective study of cattle necropsy case files over a five-year period (2000-2004) indicated that 51.2% of the mortalities had masses of non-degradable polythene materials recovered from their rumens while the meat laboratory records on slaughtered cattle in the Institute within the same period indicated that 40.3% had rumen impaction due to ingestion of polythene materials of various sizes and shapes. The results of the study indicate that clinical signs alone are not good determinants of polythene bag rumen impaction in cattle. The relatively non-availability of pasture in some parts of northern Nigeria during the dry season predisposes malnourished and mineral deficient cattle to scavenge on the widely available used and improperly disposed polythene bags that litter the environment. The need for state legislation against improper disposal of non-biodegradable synthetic polythene materials to make the environment safe for our ruminants is recommended in this study.
  I.R. Muhammad
  Two studies were conducted in Kano metropolis located in the semi arid zone. The objective was to determine category of urban dwellers involved in urban livestock rearing; determine the feed resources obtainable and ingested by scavenging ruminants, the species and breed of livestock raised in urban centres of the region. Study one was conducted using structured questionnaires that were designed and randomly administered to urban livestock rearers and animal`s health works in six local government areas within Kano metropolis. Study two, was conducted to identify major refuse dumps within the metropolis of Kano. Thereafter, inventory of materials eaten by ruminant livestock, species of ruminant livestock and number observed per replicate site were recorded. The results obtained in study one showed urban livestock rearers (34%) were within the ages of 31-40 years. Over 82% of the respondents were males and 62% of them married. Forty eight percent of the respondents attended tertiary institutions. Most of the respondents (51%) kept animals for 1-5 years. The species of animals kept in the area were 6% cattle; 48% sheep and 31% Goats. The number of animals kept varied between 1 and above 7 per individual with about 80% of the respondents keeping 3-6 animals. Most of the animals reared (72%) are sold for additional income. Livestock health workers were mainly males (100%) and 92.5% of them married. The data showed health workers were engaged in some part-time livestock rearing. Sixty three percent (62.9%) of the health workers attended tertiary education and 3.70% had Qur`anic education. In study two, fodder had the highest frequency of occurrence. This was followed by household wastes and feeding on rumen content or drinking of waste water were the least activities recorded. Goats were the most frequent animals seen at the refuse dumps. The number of female animals was twice that of males. White Fulani (95.8%) was the most encountered breed of cattle. Yankasa breed of sheep had the highest frequency of occurrence (48.2%) and Maradi breed of goat constituted 94%. The implication of the present finding is, urban livestock production provides job opportunity; augment the incomes of some urban dwellers and clear off unconventional feed material that may upon decay give pungent odour to the environment. Furthermore, animals raised in urban centres are likely to ingest non biodegradable material and heavy metals perhaps from industrial waste water that could be detrimental to both animals and consequently humans. It is therefore, advocated that livestock professionals and policy makers develop an awareness programme on the implications of raising livestock in urban centres while ruminant animals raised in urban centres be provided with clean drinking water, feed and mineral supplements to enhance their performance.
  I.R. Muhammad , M. Baba , A. Mustapha , M.Y. Ahmad and L.S. Abdurrahman
  An experiment was conducted to determine the species of legume that is compatible with Columbus grass for ensilage and to establish the optimum proportion of legume inclusion for better silage preparation. Field grown Columbus grass (Sorghum almum Parodi) was sampled at soft dough stage and fortified with legumes forage from Centurion (Centrocema pascourum L.); Lablab bean (Lablab purpureum (L.) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L). The treatments were 100% Columbus grass; 80% Columbus grass plus 20% groundnut; 60% Columbus grass plus 40% groundnut; 80% Columbus grass plus 20% Lablab; 60% Columbus grass plus 40% Lablab; 80% Columbus grass plus 20% Centurion and 60% Columbus grass plus 40% Centurion. Each of the treatment combination was ensilage using in vitro silos, kept at room temperature of 26C for 21days incubation period. Thereafter, pH and proximate composition were examined. The results obtained showed the compounded silages were good and moderately acidic with pH varying from 5.33-5.77. Higher acidic value was obtained from silage prepared of 60% Columbus grass plus 40% groundnut. Dry matter as fed varied significantly (p<0.05) from 308.0-508.0 g kg 1 succulent silage. Significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter as fed was observed from treatments that had 60% Columbus grass plus 40% Lablab. Significantly higher CP was obtained from the inclusion of 40% of lablab. Organic matter content (OM) of the silage vary significantly (p<0.5) from 45.7-69.1%. Ether Extract (EE) varied (p<0.05) from 6.6-19.4% with the higher values obtained from Columbus grass plus 40% lablab. The content of ash obtained showed significant variations (p<0.05) in the composed silages. Higher OM and CF content were obtained from treatments that had 100% Columbus grass.
  Y. Garba and I.R. Muhammad
  The objective of this study was to investigate and ascertain the claim by farmers for proper documentation of the use of Sabara plant as milk enhancer in livestock. A diagnostic survey was conducted in 5 Local Government Areas of Kano State located within the semi arid region. The results obtained revealed the age groups of the majority of the respondents were between 48-58 years (24.2%). Male respondents constitute 76.8 and 79.6% married. Ninety two percent of the respondents (91.8%) had some form of education but majority (44%) had Quranic education. Responses from farmers with only livestock constituted 46.3 and crop-livestock farmers were 45.4%. Majority of respondents (35.4%) relied on livestock farming as an occupation. Species of animals encountered showed 65% were kept alone (Goat, Sheep, Camel, Cattle and Donkey) but the top 3 were in the order of sheep (26.3%), goats (20.2%) and cattle (14.1%). There were cases of keeping combinations of livestock species. Respondents recognized animals browsing leaf fraction (64.6%), followed by combination of leaves and flowers fraction. It was reported that all categories of animals (75.8%) irrespective of their physiological stages browse on Sabara in the decreasing order of young, pregnant and lactating animals. The result obtained in this study, revealed sabara plant is a browse used more prominently during the late dry season to the early wet seasons (87%). It is therefore, recommended that phyto-chemical analysis and bioassay be conducted with lactating animals to ascertain its implication in milk production and determine its level of inclusion in the ration of lactating animals. It is hoped that results of the present study stimulates further studies in its role in milk production of livestock and development of conservation strategies.
  I.R. Muhammad , M.I. Abdu , G.T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor and K.A. Sulaiman
  An experiment was conducted to determine the species of legume that is compatible with gamba grass for ensilage and to establish the optimum proportion of legume inclusion for better silage preparation. Field grown Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) was sampled at soft dough stage and fortified with legumes forage from Centurion (Centrocema pascourum L.); Lablab bean (Lablab purpureum L.) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L). The treatments were 100% Gamba grass; 80% Gamba grass plus 20% groundnut; 60% Gamba grass plus 40% groundnut; 80% Gamba grass plus 20% Lablab; 60% Gamba grass plus 40% Lablab; 80% Gamba grass plus 20% mucuna and 60% Gamba grass plus 40% mucuna. Each of the treatment combination was ensilage using in vitro silos, kept at room temperature of 26?C for 21 days incubation period. Thereafter, pH and proximate composition were examined. The results obtained showed the compounded silages were good and moderately acidic with pH varying from 5.33-5.77. Higher acidic value was obtained from silage prepared of 60% Gamba grass plus 40% groundnut. Dry matter as fed varied significantly (p<0.05) from 308.0-508.0 g kg-1 succulent silage. Significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter as fed was observed from treatments that had 60% Gamba grass plus 40% Lablab. Significantly higher CP was obtained from the inclusion of 40% of lablab. Organic Matter content (OM) of the silage vary significantly (p<0.5) from 45.7-69.1%. Ether Extract (EE) varied (p<0.05) from 6.6-19.4% with the higher values obtained from Gamba grass plus 40% lablab. The content of ash obtained showed significant variations (p<0.05) in the composed silages. Higher OM and CF content were obtained from treatments that had 100% Gamba grass. Rabbits however showed preference for sole ensilage gamba grass to fortified ensilage materials.
 
 
 
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