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Articles by I.O. Obaroh
Total Records ( 4 ) for I.O. Obaroh
  I.O. Obaroh and G.C. Achionye-Nzeh
  Tilapias are yet to reach their full aquaculture potential because of the problem of prolific breeding which usually results in overpopulation thus leading to stunted growth. The potential use of Azadirachta indica leafs as an antifertility substance in controlling prolific breeding in Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Crude extract of Azadirachta indica leaves were added to a basal diet (35% crude protein) at 0.0, 0.5. 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg-1 diet, respectively (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) and fed to 180 Oreochromis niloticus (90 males and 90 females) Mean±SD weight of 29.30±2.02-31.79±3.11 g twice daily (0900-0930, 1700-1730) at 3% of their body weight for 56 days to evaluate the effects on growth and reproduction. There was variation (p<0.05) in growth parameters with fish fed 1.0 g kg-1 diet showing best Mean±SD weight gain of 19.68±3.22 g. A total of 63-89 hatchlings were counted in the control tank in the 3rd week and 35-51 hatchlings from fish fed with 0.5 g kg-1 diet in the 5th week, there was no breeding in the groups; D3, D4, D5 and D6 during the course of this study. This study infers that Azadirachta indica leafs extract could be used in controlling prolific breeding in Oreochromis niloticus for efficient and sustainable development of tilapia farming.
  I.O. Obaroh , J.N. Keta and J. Nwaogu
  Background and Objective: The need for food security has led to the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth promoter, to replace their effects, phytoadditives obtained from plant could be an alternative. Thus, this study was carried out in order to assess the growth performance of Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina extracts on Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: Leaves were shade-dried, ground and sieved, while the fresh A. cepa bulbs were ground. About 100 g of each plant material was soaked in 500 mL ethanol for 24 h with constant shaking at intervals, afterward it was filtered. A total of 300 Clarias gariepinus fingerlings of mean weight ranging between 3.73±0.35-4.63±0.32 g were obtained from a hatchery. Fingerlings were divided into 10 groups representing the treatments (Control, A1, A2, A3, M1, M2, M3, V1, V2 and V3). Each group consist of 30 fishes. Fingerlings were stocked in outdoor concrete tanks (measuring 2×2×1.5 m). Water parameters were monitored twice in a week. Results: The highest final mean weight and mean weight gained were observed in group of fish fed with 0.5 g kg1 of M. oliefera extract (M1) with values of 44.22±3.89 and 39.72±3.30 g, respectively, while the least for both parameters were observed in group of fish fed with 1.5 g kg1 of A. cepa (A3) with values of 29.44±4.26 and 25.48±1.93 g, respectively. At higher concentrations the 3 plant extracts exerted low growth response on C. gariepinus, while at low concentrations A. cepa and M. oliefera extracts exerted positive growth response on C. gariepinus. Statistical analysis showed significant difference when the highest mean weight gained was compared with the control and other groups. Conclusion: This study infers that, at low concentration Allium cepa, Moringa oliefera and Vernonia amygdalina has growth promoting effects, furthermore Moringa oliefera leaf and Allium cepa bulb had superior performance over the control diet. The use of phytoadditives to replace antibiotics has just begun, it is hoped that, further research on their long duration use in fish culture will further establish their potency.
  I.O. Obaroh , J.N. Keta , J. Nwaogu and A. Abdullahi
  Background and Objective: The use of phytoadditives in fish culture is on the rise due to their greater advantages over the synthetics drugs. Moringa oleifera saponins has a positive effect on fish growth, however little is known about its effects on liver and intestine. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of crude extract of Moringa oleifera saponin on liver and intestine histology of Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: Crude saponins were isolated from Moringa oleifera leaf using standard procedures. Two hundred and forty fish divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D) and fed for 60 days with varying concentrations of the crude extract (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g kg1) incorporated into basal diet. At the end of the study, liver and intestines from fish in each group were sectioned using standard procedure. Results: Photomicrograph impression of the fish liver in the control group revealed normal central vein and fats cells. While in the other groups deposit of fat cells distorting the normal architecture of the liver and fibrosis were observed as the concentration of saponin increases. The intestine of fish in the control group revealed normal mucosal lining. While in the other groups normal mucosal lining and gradual increase in the number of inflammatory cells in submucosa were observed as the concentration of saponins increases. Conclusion: This study infers that crude extract of Moringa oleifera saponins affects the structure of the liver and causes inflammation in the intestine of Clarias gariepinus especially at high concentrations.
  I.O. Obaroh , U. Abubakar , M.A. Haruna and M.C. Elinge
  Pollution of inland water ways is largely as a result of human activities along the river banks. Some heavy metals concentrations of River Argungu were evaluated due to its close proximity to the town. The study lasted for 12 months (March, 2014-February, 2015) using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) Analysis. Nickel and copper were highest during the month of July with mean values of 1.02±0.02 and 1.81±0.23 mg L–1, respectively, lead and chromium were highest during the month of September with mean values of 13.12±0.18 and 0.14±0.05 mg L–1, respectively. The Mean±SD of eight heavy metals assessed indicated that, nickel, iron, lead and cadmium detected were observed to be higher than the permissible limit (nickel 0.02, iron 0.30, lead 0.01 and cadmium 0.003 mg L–1) throughout the study period. Zinc was however, lower than the permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) throughout the period of the study. Most of the highest concentrations of heavy metals observed were at the onset and during the rainy season. The high concentrations of some heavy metals observed in the river could be as a result of human activities mostly concentrated at the river banks and run-off during the rainy season. This study infers that, some fish species could be threaten as a result of the high concentrations of most of the heavy metals, thus the need for an efficient and sustainable fisheries management to control human activities along the river bank.
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