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Articles by I.M. El-Refai
Total Records ( 2 ) for I.M. El-Refai
  M.A. Elwakil , I.M. El-Refai , O.A. Awadallah , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  This study was undertaken to study the seed-borne fungi of faba bean that attack the plants and reduce their yield in Egypt. The results provide a database for further study to control the pathogens. Twenty-six seed samples representing six faba bean cultivars collected from different parts of Egypt were used in this investigation. The blotter and deep-freezing methods were used. Surface- and non-surface-sterilized faba bean seeds were tested to detect and isolate the associated seed-borne fungi. The following 20 fungal species belonging to 13 genera were observed and identified: Aspergillus flavus (Link ex. Gray), Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem), Aspergillus ochraceus (Wilhelm), Penicillium digitatum (Pers.:Fr.) Sacc., Penicillium italicum (Wehmer), Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Botrytis faba (Sardina), Cephalosporium sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides (Frensen. de Vries), Epicoccum nigrum (Link), Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechlendahl), Fusarium semitectum (Berkeley and Ravenel), Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Fusarium verticillioides (moniliforme) (Sheld), Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn), Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.), Stemphylium globuliferum (Vestergr.) E.G. Simmons), Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link, Verticillium dahliae (Ehrenp) Vuill. The blotter method yielded a greater number of fungi than the deep-freezing method on both surface and non-surface sterilized seeds, but the deep-freezing method was better for slow-growing fungi. The pathogenicity test revealed that the most commonly isolated fungi from pre- and post-emergence damping-off and stunted seedlings were F. verticillioides, R. solani, Cephalosporium sp. and V. dahliae. These fungi significantly reduced the photosynthetic pigments in faba bean leaves. Fusarium verticillioides caused the greatest reduction in chlorophyll content (A, B and total chlorophyll). Fusarium oxysporum and V. dahliae significantly reduced carotenoid content. R. solani significantly reduced total phenols content when compared with the other tested fungi.
  M.A. Elwakil , O.A. Awadallah , I.M. El-Refai , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  Present objective was to study this phenomenon on the common seed-borne fungi of faba bean in soil amended with composted organic wastes and infested with the most commonly isolated fungi from Vicia faba seed. In vitro studies showed that the yeast was effective in reducing the linear growth of Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum,. F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae. Pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae was reduced significantly when seeds of faba bean were coated with a water suspension (109 cfu mL-1) of the yeast before sowing in soil supplemented with compost type (1) (prepared by Mansoura manufacturer with organic waste from city garbage) or type (2) (consisted of 1 ton of horticultural waste and 100 kg sheep manure). Soil was artificially infested with the fungi isolated from faba bean seeds. The above treatment significantly increased plant growth parameters including height, shoot and root length, number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant, fresh weight and dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoids) were also increased by the treatments. Total phenols content in the treated plant leaves was higher than in the control plants.
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