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Articles by I.J. Atangwho
Total Records ( 7 ) for I.J. Atangwho
  I.O. Williams , M.A. Agiang , O.O. Ekpe , U.I. Aletan , E.O. Edet and I.J. Atangwho
  Twenty male albino rats of the Wistar strain were placed in four experimental groups of five rats each. Group A (Reference group) received a standard protein diet, Group B received a basal or protein-free diet, Group C received the F1-QPM diet, while Group D received common maize (CM) diet. Water and feed were allowed ad libitum. Rats were fed for 21 days at the expiration of which indices of protein nutritional quality viz PER, NPU, NPR, TD and BV, were evaluated. The results showed that Group C rats had a higher (p<0.05) protein efficiency ratio (PER) value of 0.97 ± 0.06 compared to rats in Group D (0.48 ± 0.28). Similarly, net protein utilization (NPU) value of 80.67 ± 3.21% for group C was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for group D (41.83 ± 5.48). The same trend was observed for true digestibility (TD) and biological value (BV). The values were TD (89.27 ± 0.55% for Group C and 81.59 ± 0.11% for Group D) and BV (90.30 ± 2.56% for Group C and 51.00 ± 6.10% for Group D) respectively. Values of net protein ratio (NPR) obtained also followed the same trend (1.85 ± 0.06 for Group C and 1.61 ± 0.39 for Group D) but not significantly different (p>0.05). Additionally, the protein contents of the F1-QPM and CM diets compared showed that though F1-QPM had a higher level of protein (11.80 ± 2.84%) than CM (10.67 ± 0.31%), the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Quality protein maize (QPM) maintained its high nutritional quality in spite of change in environment. Increased cultivation and utilization of QPM is recommended as this could help to alleviate hunger and protein malnutrition in developing countries.
  M.U. Eteng , B.J. Bassey , I.J. Atangwho , G.E. Egbung , E.U. Eyong , P.E. Ebong and A.O. Abolaji
  Hypoglycemic and biochemical effects of herbal extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae), Catharantus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceace) and chlorpropamide were compared and status of macrovascular complications evaluated using biochemical indices in normal and diabetic rats. The phytochemistry of the herbs was also assessed. Hypoglycemic activity of the herbs and chlorpropamide was evaluated on diabetic and non-diabetic rats but biochemical effects of the treatments was evaluated only on diabetic rats, assigned into four study groups (n = 8). Group I (control) received placebo (30% ethanol), treatment group II was gavaged with chlorpropamide in dose 14.28 mg kg-1 body weight, while groups III and IV were administered extracts of V. amygdalina (400 mg kg-1 body weight) and C. roseus (400 mg kg-1 body weight), respectively in 30% ethanol vehicle for 21 days. Results of the phytochemistry assessment identified alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins in V. amygdalina and C. roseus. Triterpenes were identified only in V. amygdalina and anthroquinones only in C. roseus. All three treatments produced hypoglycaemic activity in normal and diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 to <0.01) reduced triglyceride and total Cholesterol relative to controls. C. roseus alone significantly (p<0.01) elevated HDL-Cholesterol. Serum protein significantly (p<0.05) increased in all treatments compared with controls. Urea levels decreased in all the treatments but more dramatic with chlorpropamide. Aminotransferase activity was not altered except serum ALT which was reduced in treated rats. Electrolyte profile showed dilutional hyponatremia with chlorpropamide treatment, which was absent in C. roseus treatment but mild in V. amygdalina. These changes in biochemical indices of toxicity and macrovascular complications are discussed with respect to the comparative therapeutic benefits of the three treatments.
  F.E. Uboh , M.I. Akpanabiatu , I.J. Atangwho , P.E. Ebong and I.B. Umoh
  The effect of vitamin A on weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity associated with gasoline vapours exposure was assessed in male and female Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to ungraded concentrations of gasoline vapours (6 h daily) for 20 weeks. Vitamin A (retinol) at prophylactic dosage (400 IU kg-1 day-1) was orally administered to the rats in the last two weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells (RBC), weight gain and growth rate in the male and female rats exposed to the vapours were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared respectively to the levels obtained for male and female control rats. On the other hand, the levels of White Blood Cells (WBC) in the male and female test rats were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared respectively with the level obtained for male and female control rats. These observations indicated that exposure to gasoline vapours produced haematotoxicity, weight loss and growth depression in rats. However, administration of vitamin A was observed to produce a significant regain (p<0.05) in weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity observed to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, although the females were noted to respond more favourably than the males. This suggests that vitamin A may be used to reverse or prevent weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity in subjects exposed to gasoline vapours.
  I.J. Atangwho , P.E. Ebong , M.U. Eteng , E.U. Eyong and A.U. Obi
  This research assessed the hypoglycemic action of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina del and its impact on selected indices of kidney function in experimental diabetic rat models. Twenty-one Wistar rats (120-160 g) assigned to 3 groups of seven rats each were used. Groups 1 and 3, constituting the diabetic (DC) and normal controls (NC), respectively were both given placebo treatment, whereas group 2 was the test group of animals administered the extract (400 mg kg-1 body weight) by gastric-intubation for 14 days. Results of analyses of serum electrolytes and biochemical indices showed: significant reductions (p<0.05) in glucose, urea and sodium concentrations of the V. amygdalina ethanolic extract treated group (144.14±25.83, 81.60±16.52 and 65.00±6.24, respectively) relative to their respective controls (247.25±4.83, 122.08±10.60 and 116.62±12.00). Serum chloride levels of the test group also reduced, whereas, that of potassium and creatinine were elevated with respect to their normal control values. However, these later changes were non-significant (p>0.05). Histological changes in the kidney tissues such as necrosis of tubules, degeneration of cells of glomerular capsule and partial obliteration of glomerular tuft observed in diabetic animals were reversed in extract treated diabetic group. Vernonia amygdalina extract besides its hypoglycemic action, can protect against kidney impairments due to diabetes, but may induce dilutional hyponatraemia.
  F.E. Uboh , M.I. Akpanabiatu , I.J. Atangwho and Y. Alozie
  A gender-dependent potential atherosclerotic risk is reported in this study to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours in rats model. The atherosclerotic risk was assessed from the serum lipid and some electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl¯) profiles in male and female rats exposed wholly to 17.8±2.6 cm3/h/kg/m3/day of gasoline vapours (8 h daily, 6 days week-1) for 20 weeks in exposure chambers. A significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C), K+ and decrease (p<0.05) in High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Na+ and Cl- was obtained for both male and female rats exposed to gasoline vapours. These results showed a state of hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia, increased TG/HDL-C ratio and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) in male and female rats exposed to gasoline vapours. However, the comparative percentage increase in serum TC, TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C, K+, as well as percentage decrease in serum HDL-C, Na+ and Cl¯ reported to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, were observed to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in females than the male rats. Since hyperlipidaemia, hyperkalaemia and hyponatraemia are known to be implicated in atherosclerosis, the result of this study gives a clear indication that gasoline vapours is among the risk factors for atherosclerosis and that the females are more adversely affected than the males in rats model.
  G.E. Egbung , E.U. Essien and I.J. Atangwho
  This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.
  M.A. Mgbekem , I.J. Atangwho , E. Duke , N. Ukam , M. Ojong , M.E. John , E.U. Eyong and C. Chiotu
  Alterations in nutritional status are common with HIV infections. Wasting syndrome increases predisposition to opportunistic infections. Food consumption pattern is a known determinant factor for nutritional problems among PLWH. This study was conducted at the Heart-to-Heart Clinic of General Hospital Calabar, to assess food consumption patterns of PLWH. One hundred and twenty eight (128) subjects (50 males and 78 females) made of 50 HIV+ve on treatment (ART), 50HIV+ve not on treatment (NART) and 28 non infected control group. Ethical clearance and consent was obtained from Centre for Clinical Governance, Research and Training, Ministry of Health Calabar while participation was voluntary. Data collection was done by trained field workers for measurement of weight and height, food frequency questionnaire. The results showed significant differences in consumption pattern of carbohydrates (chi = 15.994, df = 6, p<0.05), legumes (chi = 9.871, df = 4, p<0.05), fats/oil at p<0.001 level. The most commonly consumed foods were cassava and cassava products, plantain, rice, bread, fish and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits were consumed only 3-6 times a week. Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly lower in NARTs. This study showed that food consumption patterns and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) are synergistically interwoven among PLWH.
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