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Articles by I.F. Albokhadaim
Total Records ( 6 ) for I.F. Albokhadaim
  T. Althnaian , K.M. Alkhodair , I.F. Albokhadaim , A. Homaida and A.M. Ali
  The objective of this study was to study in detail about the endocrine cells of the camel duodenum. The duodenum is not only an important part of the gastrointestinal tract, but also works as endocrine portion by secreting some hormones that play key roles in the regulation of certain organs. Specimens from eleven dromedarian camels (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes with age ranging from 2-12 years were examined. The immunohistochemistry was performed using five types of hormones. Gastrin showed high immunoreactivity at the endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. Somatostatin showed very high immunoreactivity at endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal gland. The performance of insulin, which was done for the first time on the duodenum of camel, showed low immunoreactivity at endocrine cells of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. Serotonin showed high immunoreactivity at the enteroendocrine cells of the tunica mucosa and few cells that produced serotonin at duodenal glands. Glucagon showed moderate to low immunoreactivity at the endocrine of tunica mucosa and duodenal glands. In conclusion, the study results found that the duodenum of the camel has distinctive characters immunohistochemically. Therefore, further physiological and experimental studies are required.
  S.M. El-Bahr and I.F. Albokhadaim
  The present study aimed to investigate the extent of stability of glucocorticoids against the bacterial actions and their enzymatic activities that are naturally occurring in faeces. Faecal samples were freshly collected from each of 10 cattle and 10 sheep. Each sample was immediately incubated in a water bath at 38°C with either 1 μg of cortisol or corticosterone. The incubations were then run at time intervals of 4, 8 and 24 h (in cattle) and at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h (in sheep). The samples were extracted with methanol and the aliquots were taken after centrifugation from their supernatants and analyzed for measurement of cortisol and corticosterone by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). A dramatical decline in the concentrations of the added cortisol and corticosterone was observed in cattle faeces. Only about 20% of the starting levels of both hormones after 4 h in contrast to almost no cortisol with about 10% of corticosterone after 8 h and about 5% of corticosterone after 24 h was detected. Prolonged incubation of faecal samples of sheep decreased the immunoreactive substances measured by the 3α-hydroxy,11-oxoandrogens EIA (11-oxo-A- EIA), whereas with the 11,17 dioxoandrotanes EIA (11,17 DOA-EIA), the values were increased. Cortisol was heavily metabolized by faecal flora being quicker in its metabolism than corticosterone in the faeces of ruminants. In addition, the present study provides a powerful evidence for the absence of native cortisol in the faeces of ruminants.
  T. Althnaian , K.M. Alkhodair , I.F. Albokhadaim , R.O. Ramdan and A.M. Ali
  The main objective of this research was to study the morphological characters of the camel duodenum. The general features of the camel duodenum were studied macroscopically. The camel duodenum was grayish to white in color. It was divided into two parts i.e., ampulla and thin part which form the long part. The thin part was divided into three parts i.e., descending part, caudal duodenal flexure (transverse part) and ascending part. The duodenum began at the pylorus and ended at the beginning of jejunum. Its mucosa was pink to grayish in color with crossed circular and longitudinal fold at the ampulla and longitudinal fold at the thin part. The length of the duodenum ranged between 1.2-3.1 m. In conclusion, the camel duodenum has distinctive morphological characters. The study provided an excellent potential for further physiological studies on camel duodenum under an arid environment.
  I.F. Albokhadaim , I.B. Ismail , S.M. El-Bahr and T. Althnaian
  Embryonated egg is an ideal, environment in which to investigate the effects of incubation temperature on the development of the chick embryo. The objective of the current study were to investigate the effect of increasing the incubation temperature of chick embryo by 1.2°C for 7 days (ED4 to ED11) on the body movement and mass of native saudi chick embryo. This objective was extended to examine the influence of pre-hatching temperature on post-hatching growth. Therefore, a total of 180 hatching egg of native Saudi chicken divided into two equal groups incubated at temperature 37.5°C. The incubation temperature was raised to 38.7°C from ED4 to ED11 in treated group before being returned to the control group incubation temperature (37.5°C). The study revealed that elevating the incubation temperature of the eggs of native Saudi chicken by just 1.2°C, from 37.5 to 38.7°C, during embryonic days (ED) 4-11 causes significant increase in embryonic movement as demonstrated in day 8 in the chicks incubated at 38.7°C together with an increase in embryonic development, the embryos incubated at higher temperature were heavier in weights and exhibit significantly longer legs than the controls in ED12 and 15. The increase in pre-hatching incubation temperature (38.7°C) did not reveal any significant effects on post-hatching growth or of feed conversion efficiency.
  O.M. Elemam , S.A. Omer , I.F. Albokhadaim and A.M. Homeida
  The study was conducted to determine withdrawal periods of intramammary preparations Curaclax (ampicillin+ceplulosporin), oxymast (oxytetracycline) and spectrazol (cefruxine) in camel and cow milk. Withdrawal periods in milk were 4 days in cows versus 5 days in camels for curaxlox and 4 days in cows versus 6 days in camel for oxmast and spectrazol. The significant (p<0.05) difference in withdrawal periods between camel and cow emphasizes the need to establish specific withdrawal periods for other drugs in the camel.
  M.A. Alfattah , A.I. Al-Mubarak , T.A. Althnaian , I.F. Albokhadaim , A.K. Al-Haide and A.M. Homeida
  It is now established practice to upgrade the protein content of low quality roughage by urea treatment. Administration of urea may result in some adverse effects. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding urea-treated wheat straw diet on the hormonal and metabolic environment of ovarian follicles. Feeding of urea-treated wheat straw to camels resulted in significantly increased concentration of serum and follicular fluid urea compared to their counterparts that fed straw only. The increased urea in follicular fluid was accompanied by decreased concentration of estradiol 17 β and progesterone and increased activity of lactic dehydrogenase in the fluid. This suggested that feeding of high urea diets may affect follicular fluid composition and development of oocyte.
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