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Articles by I.C. Okoli
Total Records ( 20 ) for I.C. Okoli
  O.K. Chukwuka , I.C. Okoli , N.J. Okeudo , A.B.I. Udedibie , I.P. Ogbuewu , N.O. Aladi , O.O.M. Iheshiulor and A.A. Omede
  Poultry egg is a vehicle for reproduction; it also serves as a source of food for human consumption. The size and shape of avian eggs differs among the various species of birds, but all eggs have three main parts-yolk, albumen and shell. The quality of eggs depends on physical make up and chemical composition of its constituent parts. Due to the diversity in the potential uses of poultry eggs and the subsequent consumer demands that egg quality become extremely difficult to define. Egg quality is the more important price contributing factor in table and hatching eggs. It is obvious that quality of egg is important from producer’s point of view. One of the biggest challenges for the poultry industry is to provide consistent quality egg products to the consumer. Thus breeding companies are shifting selection emphasis to improved egg quality. Problems associated with egg quality include: egg shell defect and internal defects which can be broadly categorized into three groups namely: defects affecting yolk quality, defects affecting albumin quality and defects affecting overall quality. Egg quality defects are usually easily resolved, but can be costly if they are not dealt with quickly.
  N.O. Aladi , N.J. Okeudo , I.C. Okoli and E.C. Akanno
  A comparative study of different reproductive parameters of Large White (LW) and Nigerian Indigenous (NI) pigs was carried out using 9 NI (1 boar and 8 gilts) and 7 LW (2 boars and 5 gilts). Their progenies comprising 20 LW (10 boars and 10 gilts), 22 NI (12 males and 10 females) and 9 LWxNI crossbred pigs (3 males and 6 females) were used to compare the hematological attributes at 9, 17 and 25 weeks of age. The three breeds were managed in a similar fashion. It was observed that heat was virtually silent among the NI gilts and intra breed sexual congresses were more effective than the interbreed congresses. The LW pigs had significantly higher (p<0.05) birth weight than the NI pigs (1.3 kg versus 0.8 kg) and had longer gestation period (116.0 days versus 111.7 days) but litter sizes were similar. No significant age or breed differences were found in haematological parameters (p>0.05) and the values were within the normal ranges generally accepted as reference values for healthy pigs.
  I.C. Okoli , C.O. Okparaocha , C.E. Chinweze and A.B.I. Udedibie
  Several processing methods have been used to reduce the cyanogenic glycoside content of cassava used in animal feeding, resulting in wide variations in the physicochemical and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contents of available processed cassava products. This study evaluated the physicochemical and HCN contents of three differently processed cassava products used for feeding poultry in Nigeria. The three products were designated Abi (AB), Nali (NB) and Local (LB) brands. They were analyzed for their physical properties Bulk Density (BD), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and specific gravity (SP); chemical properties Moisture Content (MC), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF), Ether Extract (EE) Ash Content (AC), Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) and hydrogen cyanide contents. The LB and AB had significantly higher (p<0.05) WHC than NB while LB had the lowest BD and SG which were again significantly different from those of AB and NB (p<0.05), indicating significantly higher insoluble Non Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) or indigestible fiber in LB. The AB and LB were similar in their CF, AC and NFE values (p>0.05) which were significantly different from the NB values (p<0.05). The significantly higher CF (5.5%) in NB is chiefly soluble NSP as shown by the low WHC of the brand. The NB recorded very high HCN value (100-200 ppm), while the LB and AB had 5-15 ppm, indicating value in poultry feeding. Comparatively, NB, which is an oven toasted product, recorded superior physicochemical values, while the AB and LB gave more desirable HCN values. The Nali and Abi processing methods could be combined to produce a superior cassava product for the feeding of poultry in Nigeria.
  N.J. Okeudo , N.O. Aladi , I.C. Okoli and E.C. Akanno
  The growth and carcass characteristics of Large White (LW), Nigerian Indigenous (NI) and their F1 crossbred (LWxNI) pigs were compared across various ages. A total of 51 pigs were used in the study, which comprised 22 NI (12 boars and 10 gilts), 20 LW (10 boars and 10 gilts) and 9 LWxNI crossbred pigs (3 boars and 6 gilts). The three breeds were managed in a similar fashion and slaughtered at 34 weeks of age. There were significant differences (p<0.01) in live weight, Average Daily Gain (ADG), Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) among the NI, LW and LWxNI (F1) crossbred pigs. At 10 weeks of age, LW boars had significantly higher ADG (125.7 g day-1 versus 78.3 g day-1) and consumed more feed (326.2 g day-1 versus 146.8 g day-1) than the NI boars. Differences in FCR between the NI and LW boars were significant at 25 weeks of age (p<0.05). At similar live weights, LW pigs were significantly (p<0.01) younger and had higher in ADG, ADF1 and FCR values than the other breeds. The carcass of NI male pigs yielded significantly (p<0.05) higher percent lean (53.3% versus 40.0%), higher four lean cuts (57.7% versus 55.0%), higher percent shoulder (20.1% versus 17.6%) but lower dressing percentage (64.6% versus 69.2%) than in the LW male pigs. It is therefore concluded that whereas the NI pigs grew poorly when compared to the LW counterparts, they possess some superior carcass characteristics.
  O.O.M. Iheshiulor , B.O. Esonu , O.K. Chuwuka , A.A. Omede , I.C. Okoli and I.P. Ogbuewu
  Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which invade crops in the field and may grow on foods during storage under favourable conditions of temperature and humidity. They are regularly implicated in toxic syndromes in animals and humans. No region of the world escapes the problem of mycotoxins and its estimated that there are about 300 harmful mycotoxins. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) estimates that about 25% of the world crops contain mycotoxins. Mycotoxins have been detected in various food commodities from many parts of the world and are presently considered as one of the most contaminants of food and feed. Mycotoxins causes mycotoxicoses and their toxicity depends on the amounts ingested, time-span of exposure, type of animal, their breed, age, sex, health status, but also other parameters such as density of animals, diseases and temperature. The mycotoxins of most concern due to their toxicity and occurrence are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxins. They cause significant economic losses in animals due to reduced productivity, increased disease incidence, chronic damage of vital organs and decreased reproductive performance. Also, the productivity and nutritive value of infected grains and cereals drops after contamination by mould. Animals may have varying susceptibilities to mycotoxins depending on physiological, genetic and environmental factors. Preventing mould growth and subsequent mycotoxin production is essential to the feed manufacturer, livestock producer and for maximum animal performance.
  I.C. Okoli , W.B. Olodi , I.P. Ogbuewu , N.O. Aladi and C.G. Okoli
  Background and Objective: The world population is estimated to be more than 9 billion by the year 2050 and this will lead to increased demands for animal protein. Hence, there is need to explore other protein food resources such as insects. This study therefore was conducted to determine the nutrient value of the African palm grub (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Palm grubs were collected from Osika bush (OSB), Yenegue bush (YEB) and Obuolo bush (OBB) in the state and thereafter taken to the laboratory for analysis using standard methods. They were analyzed for linear body measurements and nutrient compositions using descriptive statistics. Results: Results of the proximate compositions indicate that palm grub is a rich source of nutrients. Mean magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium content across locations differed significantly (p<0.05). Additionally, there was significant differences (p<0.05) in zinc and manganese concentrations across the three locations. The palm grub oil was found to be 100% unsaturated, which makes it to remain in its liquid phase at room temperature due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids. Conclusion: The high nutrient content of palm grub is a pointer that palm grub may be employed in ameliorating the problem of protein and micro nutrient deficiency in both humans and animals.
  C.G. Okoli , F.A. Edo , I.P. Ogbuewu , I.J. Nwajiobi , V.H.A. Enemor and I.C. Okoli
  Background and Objective: Pigs generates a large number of dungs that could be detrimental to the environment if not properly managed. This study attempt to determine the proximate and mineral compositions in freshly voided pig dung collected from smallholder farms in Imo state, Nigeria for possible use as animal feed. Materials and Methods: Early morning dung were collected from six farms, two from each of the three agro-ecological zones of the state and sundried. The samples were analyzed for their proximate and mineral concentration. Results: The result revealed that pig dungs are good source of dry matter (87.97%), fibre (23.33%), total ash (23.24%) and mineral (potassium, iron, phosphorus). Conclusion: This study revealed that pig dung is a good source of nutrients and could be used as animal feed. The use of pig dungs in animal feed and fertilizer for agricultural soil will lead the development of sustainable environmentally friendly animal and crop farming systems.
  I.C. Okoli , C.O.I. Udedibie , C.C. Achonwa , I.P. Ogbuewu , N.J. Anyanwu and V.H.A. Enemor
  Background and Objective: The leaves of many tropical plants are habitually given to animals as fodder without adequate knowledge of the nutritional and pharmacological compositions that generate their desirable effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical characteristics of leaf meals of Garcinia kola, Gongronema latifolium and Mucuna pruriens as candidate nutraceuticals in animal production. Materials and Methods: They were collected from surrounding farmlands and bushes at Ihiagwa, Owerri west Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo state, Nigeria. The leaf meals were subjected to physicochemical characterization to determine their bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), specific gravity (SG), proximate composition, metabolizable energy, fibre fractions, minerals and secondary metabolite concentrations. Results: The G. latifolium had higher bulk density than M. pruriens and G. kola, while G. kola had higher water holding capacity (WHC) value. The G. latifolium yielded highest crude protein, crude fat, total ash and metabolizable energy values, while for crude fiber contents of M. pruriens yielded the highest. Conclusion: It is therefore, concluded that G. latifolium, G. kola and M. pruriens are endowed with essential nutrients and bioactive substances.
  C.C. Achonwa , I.P. Ogbuewu , M.C. Uchegbu and I.C. Okoli
  Background and Objective: Indigenous plants remain green at critical times of the year and produce large quantities of year round fodder, which is regarded as unconventional feed sources in tropical countries like Nigeria. This study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics of leaf meals derived from Ficus microcarpa, a domesticated browse plant at Nnobi community, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The three villages in the community namely Awuda (Sample A), Ebenesi (Sample E) and Ngo (Sample N) were purposively selected for the study in order to generate representative data for the community. Fresh foliage from three stands of F. microcarpa at each village was collected and air-dried by spreading them under shed every day for about 6-8 days and thereafter oven dried until they became crispy and then milled to produce F. microcarpa leaf meals (FMLM). The leaf meals were analyzed for their physicochemical values. Results: Results should that FMLM was rich in Fe and Zn. The order of micro mineral concentration was Fe>Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu>Ni. Conclusion: The FMLM is therefore relatively rich in crude protein and energy, digestible fibers and essential minerals. Feeding trials incorporating the leaf meal are recommended in order to evaluate its true nutrient value.
  G.A. Anyanwu , E.B. Etuk , I.C. Okoli and A.B.I. Udedibie
  A feeding trial of 84 day was conducted to evaluate the performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed different combinations of Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO). Four layer diets were formulated such that diet T1 (control) contained 50% maize, while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained CRM and BGO in the ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively, completely replacing maize. Ninety six Shaver Brown point-of-lay pullets were allotted into four experimental groups of 24 pullets each and each group was replicated twice with eight pullets per replicate. These birds were randomly assigned to the experimental dies in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. Results indicated that daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher for layers on diet T3 and T4 than those on diet T1. Daily feed intake was significantly higher (129.48 and 128.60 g) for layers on the diet (T1) than other treatment groups, while layers on diets T2, T3 and T4 recorded higher egg weights than those on the control diet. Hen-day production was significantly (p<0.05) higher among layers fed diet T1 (control) than those on the other treatment groups which contained different combination ratios of CRM and BGO. FCR was highest (2.11) and lowest (1.99) for layers fed diets T3 and T2, respectively. Yolk index, albumen index and yolk colour showed no statistical difference (p>0.05) in all the treatment groups. However, layers on diet T4 and T3, respectively recorded the highest (0.35 mm) and lowest (0.33 mm) shell thickness while those on diet T1 and T4, respectively recorded the highest (69.64) and lowest (60.62) Haugh units. It would appear that the different combinations of CRM and BGO significantly depressed the performance of laying birds.
  O.K. Chukwuka , I.C. Okoli , M.N. Opara , A.A. Omede , I.P. Ogbuewu and O.O.M. Iheshiulor
  This review was developed to help those who might have experience financial loss to better understand mycotoxin problems and their control. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi while growing on organic substances. Scores of compounds produced by fungi have been identified and many are capable of accumulating in certain feed and food commodities. The feed/ingredient contamination with toxins may occur anywhere in the supply chain, starting from the harvest of the feedstuffs, to storage, processing and feeding channels in the farm. Mycotoxin contamination of feed is recurring problem in livestock feed industry. These mycotoxins when gets into the system of the animals or humans consuming them may cause moderate to severe toxicity symptoms. Low levels of prolonged ingestion of mycotoxins can be more hazardous than what it was thought about. The economic impacts associated with mycotoxins go far beyond the losses incurred by the feedstuff producer. They will be spread throughout the system to handlers, distributors, processors, livestock and dairy operators, consumers, national and state governments. If exports or other markets are lost due to questionable feedstuffs quality, the overall price level for the commodity could fall and result in even greater losses throughout the agricultural sector. Hence, a rational approach has to be adopted for effective control of mycotoxins.
  F.C. Iheukwumere , A.H. Abu and I.C. Okoli
  The effect of the administration of varying doses of FSH+LH (Pergonal®, Ferring Labs, USA) was used on 16 clinically, sound, parous, West African dwarf does aged 2-3 years to evaluate the hormonal profiles and superovulatory responses. Four treatment groups were employed consisting of T1 (administered with physiological saline as the control), T2, T3 and T4 given 19.0 IU, 58.0 IU and 82.0 IU FSH+LH, respectively, as intramuscular injections over 3 days. The results on the number of corpora lutea found on the ovary did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (5.25±2.74) T3 (6.25±2.13) and T4 (6.50±2.74). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (3.75±0.30) in the number of corpora lutea on the ovary. The number of embryos recovered was not significantly different (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (4.50±0.93), T3 (4.70±0.86) and T4 (4.75±1.27). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (2.25±0.01) in number of embryos recovered. Goats treated on T2 with embryo recovery rate (78.30±0.18%) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from goats on T3 (75.20±0.14%) and T4 (73.10±0.06%). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (60.00±0.02%). The ova/embryo wastage was not significantly different (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (21.70±0.30%), T3 (27.80±0.12%) and T4 (26.90±0.16%). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (40.00±0.01%) in embryo wastage. LH and FSH were highest at T3 treatment group with values of (3.60±0.02 and 3.13±0.14 (IU L-1), respectively. Progesterone and Oestradiol showed higher values on T4 goats with (16.17±1.01 and 0.26±0.41 nmmol L-1), respectively. The results of this study indicate that the administration of FSH+LH enhanced embryo production and hormonal levels in West African dwarf goats.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , A.A. Omede , O.K. Chukwuka , O.O.M. Iheshiulor , M.C. Uchegbu , A.C. Udebuani , B.C. Ekenyem , I.C. Okoli and M.U. Iloeje
  Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring phytochemicals found in plants and plant products, which are structurally and functionally similar to human or animal estrogens (17β-oestradiol) or synthetic estrogens such as diethylstilboestrol. The principal phytoestrogens are the isoflavones, which are similar to 17β-oestradiol and then the lignans derived from precursors in the diet by the gut microflora. Isoflavones are members of the flavonoid family, which are in turn members of the larger group of plant constituents known as polyphenols. The principle isoflavones in soy are genistein, daidzein and their metabolites. Since, soy isoflavone are naturally occurring non-steroidal compounds, which are structurally similar to endogenous gonadal steroid 17β-estradiol, they possess the ability to cause estrogenic or/ and antiestrogenic effects and therefore could trigger estrogen dependent physiological responses. As result of these actions, there is currently much interest within the scientific community regarding clinical benefits of soy based isoflavone.
  M.C. Uchegbu , N.O. Igbokwe , A.A. Omede , I.C. Ekwuagana , I.C. Okoli and B.O. Esonu
  A study was carried out with one-hundred and twenty 4-week old Hubbard broilers to compare the quality of some commercial feeds by assessing the performance of finisher broilers fed these diets. The commercial feed brands were collected and branded ZF, VF and EF. A formulated Control Feed (CF), T1 and three other commercial feeds ZF (T2), VF (T3) and EF (T4) were fed to the finisher broilers for 28 days in a completely randomized design experiment. The results showed that CF, VF and EF performed better than ZF in daily weight gain. Among the commercial feeds, however, VF achieved the fastest daily weight gain and therefore promoted the fasted growth rate, hence indicating a better balance in nutrient composition and improved feed quality.
  Irene U. Chima , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , C. Ezema and S.N. Wehke
  Diseases and infections have always been a major concern to intensive poultry production industry. Pathogen contamination of farming environments can be prevented using proper health care products such as disinfectants. This study evaluated the efficiency of commonly used disinfectants against bacteria occurring in intensive poultry farming environments in Imo State, Nigeria. The efficacy of six commercial disinfectants namely; Izal®, Z-germicide®, Diskol®, Virkon®, Vox® and CID 20® in reducing the number of micro-organisms was assessed. Among the tested disinfectants, Virkon® (oxidizing agents) was the most efficient, reducing the micro-organisms by 95%. The in vitro test carried out to verify the effectiveness of disinfectants did not consider the adverse conditions found in the poultry farms. Therefore, the evaluation of the efficacy of on-farm reconstituted disinfectants over time was also carried out. The results indicated that efficacy of all the disinfectants was reduced during the afternoon. However, efficacy gradually increased during the evening for all the disinfectants but not as much as was observed in the morning. Temperature, it seems affects the activity of the disinfectants against the bacterial organisms.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , U.E. Ogundu , M.N. Opara , I.C. Okoli , D.O. Umesiobi , U. Herbert and M.U. Iloeje
  The application of technologies in the field of male reproductive physiology has advanced greatly during past couple of decades. Since, the advent of frozen semen and artificial insemination, reproductive physiologists have attempted to manipulate male reproductive rates of mammals, sometimes successfully or sometimes not. The past five decades has resulted in phenomenal expansion in the improvement spermatozoa with direct application to livestock and medicine. Spermatogenesis had been reported to be induced in male animals using synthetic fertility drugs and local plant extracts. Sperm production and function have been improved via the use of nutritional regiments, semen extender and semen pool admixture. Currently, the sex of animal has been predetermined with 85-95% accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. The current success recorded in male assisted reproductive techniques came about due to advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology and genetic engineering. This review will briefly cover the developments and modifications of existing sperm manipulation techniques that have direct practical applications today and in the near future in animal agriculture and bio-medicine.
  Audifax N. Iwu , C.S. Ebere , I.P. Ogbuewu , I.F. Etuk , M.N. Opara , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , F.C. Iheukwumere and U. Herbert
  Forty eight crossbred male and female rabbits aged 12-14 weeks were used to study the effects of supplementing Coconut Shell Ash (CSA) on reproductive organ characteristics and serum sex hormone concentrations of growing rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 24 males and females, respectively. Each group was divided into four experimental treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 of six animals and was further replicated three times with two animals per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The animals were fed a commercial grower rabbit ration which was supplemented with CSA at the rate of 0, 1, 2 and 3 g kg-1 b.wt., respectively. At the end of 12 weeks feeding, three rabbits were selected from each group, slaughtered and used to determine reproductive organ characteristics. Blood samples from the slaughtered animals were collected from the jugular vein and assayed for serum reproductive hormones concentrations. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Testicular morphometry result showed that 1 to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation could improve the weight of testis, size and epididymal weights indicating that up to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation supported superior testicular development. This was associated with increasing serum testosterone concentration indicating probably a CSA enhancement of metabolic activity. One gram kg-1 b.wt. was the optimal CSA supplementation rate in female rabbits, since this led to improved weight of whole reproductive tract, weight of ovary, oviduct and uterus. This was equally associated with increased estrogen concentration, which increased with increasing CSA supplementation.
  A. Omede , V.M.O. Okoro , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli and G.A. Anyanwu
  Information on the proximate composition and sometimes the toxicology of novel feedstuffs has been used routinely in determining the suitability of feedstuffs in poultry feeding, especially during animal feeding trials. Limited information however exists on the biophysical characteristics of such novel feedstuffs. The Bulk Density (BD), Water-holding Capacity (WHC) and Specific Gravity (SG) of three novel feedstuffs {Leaf Meal (LEM), Rumen Digesta (RD) and Poultry Dung (PD)}, were evaluated. Available published and unpublished results on the proximate compositions of the materials were related to the physical characteristics results. LEM had significantly (p>0.05) lower BD and SG than RD and PD while RD recorded the highest WHC value although the value was similar (p>0.05) to that of LEM. Particle Size (PS) effects showed that BD of RD and PD were lower at the ≥1.00 mm PS than at the unmodified and <1.00 mm PS, indicating that materials of similar Crude Fiber (CF) could be manipulated to yield different BD with possible ultimate effects on the performance of birds. The WHC of LEM at <1.00 mm PS level was seven times higher than that of unmodified and =1.00 mm PS while RD value at the same <1.00 mm PS level was 2 and 4 times higher than those recorded at the unmodified and ≥1.00 mm PS levels, respectively. This is evidence that grinding increased the surface area of the LEM, thus improving the ability of its Non-starch Polysaccharides (NSP) to bind water. Information on the feed physical characteristics could be used together with proximate and toxicological information to determine the nutritional and intake potentials of a novel feedstuff even before a feeding trial.
  I.C. Okoli , D.A. Alaehie , E.C. Akano , U.E. Ogundu , C.G. Okoli , C.T. Akujobi , I.D. Onyicha and C.E. Chinweze
  Research on the concentrations of aerial pollutant gases in tropical livestock buildings is needed in order to establish baselines for exposure limits in context of animal and human welfare in the tropical environments. The concentrations of aerial ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in selected pig pens in the Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria were measured during the month of August 2002. These were thereafter correlated with pig building measurements in order to determine the possible influence of building measurements on concentration of the gases. Overall mean aerial concentrations of carbon monoxide CO (2.7±0.34 ppm) was the highest mean value recorded and was followed by the 1.4±0.0 and 0.07±0.14 ppm recorded for flammable gas (methane) and hydrogen sulfide, respectively while the 0.0±0.0 ppm recorded for ammonia was lowest. The average length of the buildings was 64.20, while 21.40, 11.60 and 4.35 ft. were obtained for width, height and sidewalls, respectively. In all pens, the simple linear regression was not significant (p<0.05), with the coefficient of determination ranging from 0.001 (SO2) to 0.364 (CO). For the different aerial pollutant gases, the best linear predictor was for CO using height of building followed by SO2 using height and so on based on the R2 values. Even though this study returned low levels of gases for the area during the month of August, there is the need to extend the study to other periods of the year especially the dry season months in other to further elucidate the effects of inclement whether on gas concentrations in pig pens.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , V.U. Odoemenam , H.O. Obikaonu , M.N. Opara , O.O. Emenalom , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , B.O. Esonu and M.U. Iloeje
  There has been astronomical increase in the costs of chemical fertilizers, agrochemicals, animal feeds and synthetic drugs in the developing countries, with an increasing indebtedness and acute poverty. This situation exerts enormous pressure to explore local resources, handy to combat these deficits and improve quality of life of the people. One of such available resources with great potentials in the 21st century is the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) tree. Neem belongs to the family Meliaceae. It is the most versatile, multifarious trees of tropics, with immense potentials. It possesses maximum useful non-wood products such as leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, oil and neem cake than any other tree species. Biologically neem has numerous bioactive ingredients with diverse applications. These bioactive ingredients are known to have antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-implantation, nematicidal, spermatocidal and other biological activities. This review is an attempt to assemble all the major research findings in neem which is of direct relevance to environment, industry, medicine and agriculture.
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