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Articles by I.B. Umoh
Total Records ( 6 ) for I.B. Umoh
  F.E. Uboh , M.I. Akpanabiatu , I.J. Atangwho , P.E. Ebong and I.B. Umoh
  The effect of vitamin A on weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity associated with gasoline vapours exposure was assessed in male and female Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to ungraded concentrations of gasoline vapours (6 h daily) for 20 weeks. Vitamin A (retinol) at prophylactic dosage (400 IU kg-1 day-1) was orally administered to the rats in the last two weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells (RBC), weight gain and growth rate in the male and female rats exposed to the vapours were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared respectively to the levels obtained for male and female control rats. On the other hand, the levels of White Blood Cells (WBC) in the male and female test rats were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared respectively with the level obtained for male and female control rats. These observations indicated that exposure to gasoline vapours produced haematotoxicity, weight loss and growth depression in rats. However, administration of vitamin A was observed to produce a significant regain (p<0.05) in weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity observed to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, although the females were noted to respond more favourably than the males. This suggests that vitamin A may be used to reverse or prevent weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity in subjects exposed to gasoline vapours.
  E.E. Edet , M.I. Akpanabiatu , F.E. Uboh , T.E. Edet , A.E. Eno , E.H. Itam and I.B. Umoh
  The effect of Gongronema latifolium crude leaf extract (GL) on weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity was assessed in male diabetic rats. Normal and diabetic rats were gavaged with 200, 300 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. of GL day-1 for two weeks. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Platelet Count (PC) in Diabetic Rats (DR) were significantly higher, (p<0.05 for PCV%; p<0.001 for Hb, RBC, WBC and PC), compared, respectively to the levels obtained for the Non-Diabetic Rats (NDR). However, GL at dose levels of 200 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt., respectively, caused significant decrease in the level of WBC in diabetic treated rats when compared to control. At 300 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt., PCV% and WBC levels in NDR were significantly different (p<0.05 for both levels at 300 mg kg-1 b.wt.; p<0.05 and p<0.001 for PCV% and WBC at 400 mg kg-1 b.wt.) compared to their controls. The results also showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight and growth-rate of diabetic test groups when compared to non-diabetic test groups following increased treatment with doses of GL. These observations indicated that diabetic condition produces alterations in haematological indices, weight-loss and growth-depression which may be reversed by treatment with GL at 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. in rat model. The significant (p<0.001) increase in WBC counts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats may likely be due to alloxan poisoning, which is in line with the normal physiological response following the perception of an insult to the body defense mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that GL may be used to reverse, prevent or reduce weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity in diabetic subjects.
  M.A. Agiang , I.B. Umoh , A.I. Essien and M.U. Eteng
  Evaluations of the effect of prolong cooking on the nutrient and antinutrient composition of beniseed and beniseed soup were carried out in this study. Proximate, mineral, vitamin A and C and antinutrient compositions of raw beniseed (BS-R), beniseed boiled (BSB) for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and beniseed soup (BSS) cooked for the same intervals of time were assessed. Results of the proximate composition analyses showed that raw and boiled beniseed had lower moisture content (5.39-5.51%) than beniseed soups (10.06-15.20%). Nitrogen-free extract (total carbohydrates), fats and phosphorus contents were improved in both the boiled beniseed and beniseed soup while calcium and potassium were increased in the boiled seeds and soup samples respectively. Moisture (in the raw and boiled beniseed), ash, magnesium, zinc, iron contents in both the seed and soup were unchanged in all the samples. Vitamins A and C levels of both boiled beniseed and beniseed soup samples were reduced with increase in cooking time. Beniseed soup had higher protein contents than both the raw and boiled beniseed which decreased with increase in cooking time. Beniseed samples provided good sources of energy (572.97-666.05 kcal/100 g). Except for phytate, the levels of antinutrients tested were lower in the raw and boiled beniseed than in the soup samples which decreased with increase in cooking time. The results are discussed with reference to the effect of prolonged cooking on the nutrient requirements of consumers.
  D. C. Opara , I.B. Umoh and M. John
  The socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics of 290 (154 females and 136 males) Persons Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) has been assessed. They were randomly selected from a total of 1280 infected persons who registered for anti retroviral therapy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. The results revealed that the age group 31-43 years were the most affected, females (53.1%) were significantly (p<0.05) more affected than males (46.9%). The married and the tertiary educated persons were more affected than single and less educated persons. The low income earners were also more affected. The most common opportunistic infections were fever, loss of appetite and diarrhea. Most (98.2%) respondents recorded low CD4 counts, it was lower in females (190.1±32.5) than males (205.7±47.2). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The 24-hour dietary intake of nutrients (Vitamin C, Fat, protein and calories) was inadequate to meet the increased nutrient needs of PLWHA. Their anthropometric parameters did not reflect the clinical status of the respondents. Almost all male respondents (99.3%) and 96.8%) of females recorded normal MUAC values, while 92.6% of males and 91.3% of female respondents recorded normal BMI values. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the BMI values of both males and females and MUAC values of females of the different age groups. The difference in MUAC values of males of the different age groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was concluded that anthropometric parameters alone were not a good index of the health status of PLWHA. It is recommended that effective health education programmes be instituted in tertiary institutions. Voluntary counseling and testing and antiretroviral treatment centers should be readily available and easily accessible to facilitate prompt intervention. Food supplementation programmes should be urgently incorporated into the national effort to curb the impact of the HIV and AIDS pandemic.
  Y. Alozie , M.I. Akpanabiatu , E.U. Eyong , I.B. Umoh and G. Alozie
  The crude protein contents and amino acid compositions of two varieties of Dioscorea dumetorum (edible and wild) were determined. The crude protein (g/l00g) of the wild variety (11.37) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the edible variety (7.0). The amino acid profiles showed both varieties to be limiting in lysine, methionine and cystine. The wild variety had tryptophan (0.60g/100g total aa), phenylalanine (3.01g/100g total aa), threonine (2.93g/100g total aa) and valine (3.6g/100g total aa) in substantial amounts when compared to the reference FAO pattern. Aspartic acid (4.47-9.28/100g total aa) was the most abundant amino acid in both varieties with the highest amount recorded for the wild variety. The chemical scores of the essential amino acids were tryptophan (60.0), threonine (43.5), valine (39.6), methionine (28.0) isoleucine (34.5), leucine (32.0), tyrosine and phenylalanine (39.0) and lysine (20.72) for the edible and tryptophan (117.0), threonine (73.25), valine (72.0), methionine (54.0) isoleucine (64.75), leucine (65.71), tyrosine and phenylalanine (83.67) and lysine (44.18) for the for the wild variety. This results being the first amino acid profiles recorded for this yam suggests that the wild D. dumetorum is richer in amino acid content than the edible variety and is likely to be of more benefit in human and animal nutrition.
  M.A. Mgbekem , M.E. John , I.B. Umoh , E.U. Eyong , N. Ukam and B.D. Omotola
  Increased lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several aspects of HIV disease pathogenesis including loss of immune function, chronic weight loss, inflammatory response and decreased immune cells proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma antioxidant micronutrients and lipid peroxidation indices in HIV positive clients (50 untreated-Not on Antiretroviral Therapy (NART), 50 on treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy-ART) and 28 sero-negative control subjects (>27 age-matched). Plasma antioxidant vitamins and lipid profile were measured. Beta-carotene levels were Control (3.44±0.46 RE), NART (5.17±0.67 RE) and ART (7.53±1.83 RE) with ART, being significantly (p<0.05) higher in ART subjects than controls. The corresponding ascorbic acid levels (mg/dl) were 1.40±0.10, 2.30±0.20 and 1.58±0.10. Levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. In contrast, the uric acid level was much lower (p<0.05) in NART subjects than ART and control groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in subjects on ART (2403.73±310.99 μ/ml) than NART (1628.11±111.56 μ/ml) and control (1459.58±119.11 μ/ml). The lipid profile showed substantially elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol showed no significance among the groups. Results showed increase in oxidative stress and a weakened antioxidant defense system in HIV positive persons, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy.
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