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Articles by I.A. Yousif
Total Records ( 5 ) for I.A. Yousif
  K.M. Elamin , I.A. Yousif , M.K.A. Ahmed , S.A. Mohammed and A.A. Tameem Eldar
  This experiment aimed at the estimation of the genetic parameters for morphometric traits of the Sudanese Local rabbits. Traits studied were: Body Weight (BWT), Ear Length (EL), Fore Limb (FL), Hind Limb (HL), Body Length (BL), height at wither (HTW), Nose to Shoulder (NS), Thigh Girth (TG), Tail Length (TL), abdominal circumference (ABC) and Heart Girth (HG). Data on 74 full pedigreed rabbits at 3 and 5 month of age were used to estimate the heritabilities, genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlation coefficients for these morphometric traits. Heritabilities and various correlation coefficients at 3 month were inestimable for EL. Heritabilties were estimated from sire component of variances. Heritabilities for other traits at this age were moderate to high (0.211-0.570) except for HG (0.130). The genetic correlations among traits studied were generally positive and high. On the other hand, heritability estimates at 5 month of age for all the traits studied were moderate to high (0.223-0.521). The genetic correlation coefficients at 5 month of age of heart girth with all traits studied except ear length (non estimable) and body length (moderate) were high. Whereas, the estimations of the genetic correlation coefficients for body weight with ear length, height at wither, nose to shoulder and tail length was low and negative. It is concluded that linear trait can be used, as alternative guide for body weight, in selection programs aiming at local rabbit improvement.
  N.M. Eltayeb , C.E. Wani and I.A. Yousif
  This study was designed to evaluate broody behavior and its effect on some production traits and the plasma prolactin hormone levels during production, incubation and rearing periods in the native chicken of the Sudan. Two stocks of dwarf (Betwil) and bare neck chicken ecotypes constituting 270 pullets were used in this study. The experimental birds were housed in floor breeding pens individually and the exhibited characteristics of broody behavior were closely observed and recorded on daily bases. Feed intake during broody and non broody periods was recorded. The effect of chicks rearing and egg accumulation in the nest as some managerial practice on broody cycle and hence egg production were also studied. Ninety blood samples representing production, incubation and rearing stages were collected from randomly selected hens (45 for each ecotype) to evaluate prolactin hormone levels and its association with the onset of broodiness. The results indicated that 86.6% of the betwil ecotype exhibited persisted broody behavior in all the measured stages compared to 55.5% for bare neck ecotype in which the signs of broody behavior were observed to be relatively mild compared to those in betwil ecotype. Depriving hens from chicks rearing resulted in significant reduction of broody cycle days. Broodiness significantly affected feed intake and egg production. The average blood prolactin level was found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in betwil than in bare neck ecotype during the incubation and rearing periods. The highest prolactin level was recorded during incubation period in both ecotypes whereas the lowest was found during rearing period. It was concluded that broodiness can be alleviated by managerial practice to improve egg production potential of the local flock.
  S. Ommeh , L.N. Jin , H. Eding , F.C. Muchadeyi , S. Sulandari , M.S.A. Zein , G. Danbaro , C.E. Wani , S.G. Zhao , Q.H. Nie , X.Q. Zhang , M. Ndila , R. Preisinger , G.H. Chen , I.A. Yousif , K.-N. Heo , S.J. Oh , M. Tapio , D. Masiga , O. Hanotte , H. Jianlin and S. Weigend
  An A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) at position 1,892 of the Mx gene coding sequence has been linked to susceptibility/resistance to avian viral infection in vitro. Using PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods, 1,946 samples from 109 populations from Asia, Africa and Europe; grouped as indigenous village, commercial, fancy chicken as well as wild junglefowl were genotyped for the polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated. Only the G allele was present in Ceylon junglefowl Gallus lafayetti. Using the wild red junglefowl G. gallus population as reference, we assessed if the A/G alleles and genotypes frequencies have been affected by the breeding history and the geographic dispersion of domestic chicken. Within group variation was high but overall there were no significant variation in distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies between the red junglefowl and indigenous village chickens (p>0.1946), with the exception of the East Asian group (p<0.0001). However, allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different between the red junglefowl and the commercial or fancy groups (p<0.0001). A small but significant negative correlation (r = - 0.166, p<0.0003) was observed between allelic and geographic distance matrices amongst indigenous village chicken populations. Human selection and genetic drift are likely the main factors having shaped today’s observed allele and genotype frequencies in commercial and fancy breeds. In indigenous village chicken and red junglefowl, we propose that both A and G alleles have been maintained by natural selection for disease resistance through a balancing selection mechanism.
  B.D. Binda , I.A. Yousif , K.M. Elamin and H.E. Eltayeb
  The present study was conducted to compare the performance of exotic meat strains (Hybro and Hubbard) and native chicken ecotypes (Bare- neck, Large Beladi and Betwil) under hot climate of the Sudan. A total of 505 one day old chicks were reared together using a Completely Randomized Design with 9 replicates for each genotype. Traits studied up to 8 weeks of age were body weight, feed intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality. Results revealed that there were significant differences (p<0.01) for body weight at various ages among the different genotypes. Body weights for the exotic strains at hatch, 4 and 8 weeks were in the range of 37.85±2.23 - 39.76±3.77, 497.37±101.50 - 516.25±107.95 g and 1230.46±258.06 - 1269.63±242.16 g respectively, whereas the corresponding results for the local ecotypes were 24.68±2.60 - 27.83±4.24, 109.28±25.77 - 141.53±33.75 g and 271.90±25.18 - 341.73±63.77 g. Average live weight gain during the first 4 weeks of age (starter stage) was significantly lower than that during the second 4 weeks (finisher stage) for both exotic strains and native ecotypes. Hybro strain exhibited the highest total live weight gain (1231.78 g.) whereas Large Baladi ecotype was the lowest (247.22). Feed intake and feed conversion ratio showed significant differences (p<0.01) between the exotic strains and the local ecotypes with the former consumed amount of feed three times that consumed by the latter and had better feed efficiency. Although the overall mortality and mortality during the first 4 weeks of age were higher among the local ecotypes than those of the exotics, the reverse was true during the second 4 weeks of age. It can be concluded that the performance of the exotic strains was substantially higher than that of the local chicken ecotypes. This can be attributed to the unimproved genetic potentials of the local chicken ecotypes. On the other hand, the performance of the exotic strains was also lower than that which can be expected under optimum environmental conditions. This may be due to the effect of high ambient temperature.
  E.A.A. Mohamed , O.H.A. Ali , Huwaida, E.E. Malik and I.A. Yousif
  The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of season (summer versus winter) and dietary protein level (high versus low) using three broiler strains (Ross, Cobb and Hubbard) on some physiological parameters; haematological parameters, haematological indices, serum metabolites and serum inorganic elements. Three hundred and sixty, one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks, were used during the summer and winter seasons, 120 from each strain. The number of chicks of each strain was divided into two groups, with six replicates (10 chicks per each). Group A of each strain was fed on a starter diet containing 23% crude protein for the first four weeks of age, replaced by a finisher diet containing 21% crude protein. Group B was fed on a starter diet containing 21% crude protein replaced by a finisher diet containing 19% crude protein. In both Cobb and Hubbard strains, the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) decreased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer season, whereas, it was significantly (P<0.05) increased in Ross strain during the same season. The haemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Cobb strain during the summer. It was not significantly affected by the season in both Ross and Hubbard strains. The total red blood cells count (TRBC count) did not significantly affected by the season in the three experimental strains. The Mean Cell Volume (MCV) increased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in Ross strain but it was not significantly affected by the season in both Cobb and Hubbard strains. The Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) decreased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in both Ross and Cobb strains but it was not significantly affected by the season in Hubbard strain. The Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) decreased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in the three experimental groups. Serum glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in both Ross and Hubbard strains but was not affected by the season in Cobb strain. The serum albumin concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in Ross strain but was not significantly affected by the season in both Cobb and Hubbard strains. The results reflected that, serum sodium (Na), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were decreased significantly during the summer in all strains. The serum calcium (Ca) concentration decreased significantly during the summer in Cobb strain. Whereas, it was not significantly affected by the season in both Ross and Hubbard strains. Although there was broiler strain X protein level interaction effect on all of following physiological parameters; PCV, MCV, MCHC, serum glucose, serum albumin, serum Na, K, Ca and serum P, the level of dietary protein appeared to be has no significant effect on any of physiological parameters under investigation.
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