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Articles by I. Zulkifli
Total Records ( 8 ) for I. Zulkifli
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , M. Hair Bejo , A. Farida and M.N. Somchit
  In order to collect ethnobotanical information about growth and health promoter plants as feed additive in broiler chickens, five medicinal plants Euphorbia hirta, Solanum torvum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Zingiber zerumbet used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study. A total of 30 female broiler chicks were obtained. At 21 days of age, the chicks were allocated at random into six groups. Five chickens were assigned at random to each treatment in five replicates and kept in 30 cages (one chickens per cage) till five weeks of age. Five groups were administered a single oral dose of 2,000 mg kg-1 b.wt. while 5 mL distilled water was given to the control group of birds as placebo. Phytochemical screening study showed that plant contained volatile oils, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids. Alkaloids and steroids were only found in the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta. Tissues were harvested and processed for photomicrographic examinations. Macro and microscopic observations indicated no alteration in liver and kidneys of the treated birds with 2000 mg kg-1 of selected herbal plants extract. In the hematological study, a highly significant decrease was observed in AST, ALT, ALP level of broiler group receiving the aqueous extract of E. hirta 14 after of administration. Acute toxicity study indicated that water suspensions of selected herbal aqueous extract are not toxic when administered by the oral route to experimental birds at 2000 mg kg-1 b.wt. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study are in agreement to a certain degree with the traditional uses of the plants estimated as prophylaxis against various diseases and promote of health.
  A.A. Saleha , Tin Tin Myaing , K.K. Ganapathy , I. Zulkifli , R. Raha and K. Arifah
  The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli isolated from chicks and chickens. This study was carried out on three flocks of birds fed commercial feeds supplemented with antibiotics from three commercial farms. The chicks and chickens in the fourth flock were reared in a chicken house, given feed without antibiotic supplementation. Cloacal swabs were taken from 50 birds per flock at 1, 21 and 42-day old. A total of 507 E. coli were isolated from these birds. The resistance of E. coli isolated form 1-day-old chicks to chloramphenicol (10 μg), cephalothin (30 μg), cephalaxin (30 μg), enrofloxacin (5 μg) and neomycin (30 μg) was 0-45% compared to the other four antibiotics, nalidixic acid (30 μg), streptomycin (10 μg), tetracycline (30 μg) and trimethoprim (5 μg) which was 75-100%. The rates of resistance to antibiotics increased with the age of the chicks. Most of the isolates were resistant to at least 6 to 7 antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance to antibiotics were seen in 21 and 42 day old chickens. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas sp. isolated from feed samples were resistant to 4-9 antibiotics. The study suggests that the colonization antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the intestinal tracts of chicks and chickens were not necessarily due to the use of antibiotics in the feed as supplementation but may also be acquired from the immediate “contaminated” environment.
  A.F. Soleimani and I. Zulkifli
  Two experiments were conducted to compare heat tolerance of Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), Village Fowl (VF) and Commercial Broilers (CB) at a common age and a common body weight. In exp. 1, RJF, VF and CB of a common age (30 days old) were exposed to 36±1°C for 3 h. Creatine kinase activity was significantly higher in CB than those of RJF and VF. Both RJF and VF had significantly lower serum K and Na concentration than their CB counterparts. In exp. 2, RJF, VF and CB of common body weight (930±30 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in exp. 1. Neither genotype nor stage of heat treatment had significant effect on serum levels of cholesterol, Cl, CK and LDH. The CB was significantly more hyperglycemic than RJF following heat treatment. In both experiments, irrespective of stage of heat treatment RJF had lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratio than VF and CB. It can be concluded that intense selection for rapid growth in CB has resulted in tremendous alterations in their ability to withstand high ambient temperature as compared to the RJF and VF. It is also apparent that genetic differences in body size per sec may not determine breed or strain variations in response to heat stress.
  R. Suriya , I. Zulkifli and A.R. Alimon
  This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma Longa) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in animals. However, the information of the effect of these herbs on broiler production, especially under tropical environmental condition is still inadequate. About 240 days old chicks were randomly allocated to 10 treatment groups consisting of 3 replications of 8 chicks in each pen. The experimental groups were formulated consisting of non-supplemented (control) and supplemented diets. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diet as follows; garlic, turmeric and cinnamon were incorporated at three concentrations; 0.25, 0.5 and 1% into the basal diet (mash form). The overall body weight gain of broiler chickens fed with 0.25% turmeric, 0.5% garlic and 0.5% cinnamon found to be significant different compared with the control group. From the result of present study, it could be suggested that the use of powdered garlic (Allium sativum) as feed additive at level of 0.5% as it proved be significantly different in body weight gain and FCR compared with the control group.
  I. Zulkifli , A. Al-Aqil and A.Q. Sazili
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of two types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on tonic immobility reaction, muscle glycogen content and serum creatine kinase activity in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On day 1, chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32°C on day 1 and gradually reduced to 23°C by day 21) (CH) or in conventional Open-sided Houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24°C; maximum, 34°C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either Ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% Feed Restriction on day 4-6 (FR). On day 42, all the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had shorter TI duration and higher muscle glycogen content than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR shortened TI duration following transportation. Tonic immobility duration increased with duration of transportation while the converse was noted for muscle glycogen content. Serum creatine kinase was not affected throughout the period of study. Collectively, the results suggested that raising birds in OH dampened fear-related behavior and improved muscle glycogen content in response to road transportation under the hot and humid tropical climate.
  M.S. Salwani , A.Q. Sazili , I. Zulkifli , Z. Nizam and W. Zul Edham
  The study aimed to determine physico-chemical characteristics and myofibrillar proteolysis of breast muscles from broiler chickens subjected to head only electrical stunning. Pectoralis major muscles were collected from un-stunned (N = 25) and electrically stunned (N = 25) chickens at a commercial poultry processing plant. All samples were analysed for pH, color values, shear force, cooking loss and desmin degradation at 0, 4 and 24 h postmortem. The head only electrical stunning had significantly improved cooking loss and lightness (L*) of the pectoralis major muscles. Besides, there was a tendency for the stunning regime employed in this experiment to cause more rapid degradation of desmin over the 24 h postmortem storage.
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , Z. Zunita and M.N. Somchit
  The aim of this study was to compare selected sterilization methods to maintain high susceptibility of antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of herbal plants. Autoclave-sterilized Impregnated disk and Impregnated disk sterilized by Acrodisc syringe filter were embedded on Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates seeded with the respective test microorganisms. Among five extracts, Euphorbia hirta exhibited antibacterial activities. Autoclaving caused less damage to the antibacterial activities of the tested extract in comparison with syringe filtration.
  A.F. Soleimani , A. Kasim , A.R. Alimon and I. Zulkifli
  A trial was conducted to determine the influence of short term exposure to high ambient temperature at 28 and 35 days of age on deep body temperatures (Tb) and subsequent growth of birds until 42 days of age. A total of 90 day old chicks were reared in stainless steel battery cages and were assigned at random into 18 pens of 5 birds each, with 9 pens containing males and another 9 pens containing females. Three treatment groups, each represented by 3 male and 3 female pens, were represented by T1 without any heat exposure, T2 with heat exposure starting at day 28 and T3 with heat exposure starting at day 35. Heat stress was defined as 180 min exposure to 35±1°C. Tb and body weights were measured at 35, 37 and 39 days of age immediately following heat exposure. Heat stress resulted in higher Tb and Onset of heat stress at 28 days resulted in significantly lower Tb than onset of heat stress at 35 days. Lower Tb in T2 than T3 permitted recovery in body weight at 42 days. Sexes responded similarly to heat stress.
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