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Articles by I. Darah
Total Records ( 5 ) for I. Darah
  S. Nor Afifah , I. Darah , S. Shaida Fariza , M.K. Mohd Jain Nordin and Z. Nurul Aili
  The antimicrobial activities of methanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, hexane and chloroform extracts of Halimeda discoidea were studied. These extracts were screened for the presence of antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and fungi. Hexane extract possessed the highest activities, followed by ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hexane extract was active against eight bacterial and two yeast strains while ethyl acetate extract was active against four bacterial strains and chloroform extract was active against one yeast strain. Only the tested microorganisms that were susceptible to the extracts were further tested for the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFC) test by the tube dilution method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for the tested microorganisms were between 0.25-1.00 mg mL-1 while the Minimum Bactericidal and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations were 1.00 mg mL-1 to 2.00 mg mL-1. No fungal isolates tested showed any susceptibility against any of the extracts. The activities were compared to known commercialized antibiotics, chloramphenicol for the bacteria and ketoconazole for the yeasts and fungi.
  Lim Sheh-Hong and I. Darah
  Curculigo latifolia Dryand has been widely used as a traditional medicine, with beneficial effects in various diseases, including to ease joint pains and prevention of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular. In this study, we demonstrated anticandidal activity and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic root extract of C. latifolia Dryand. The solvent used for the process of extraction was methanol. The crude extract from C. latifolia Dryand root showed a favourable anti-Candida activity against different strains of pathogenic C. albicans cell by using disc diffusion method and broth dilution method. Brine shrimps assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of methanolic root extract of C. latifolia Dryand. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the extract against C. albicans had determined. Time-kill assay demonstrated that C. latifolia Dryand root extract had inhibited the growth profile of C. albicans. The microscopic studies showed the extract acts by caused the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure time. The result of in vivo cytotoxicity test revealed that the value of LC50 of the root extract from C. latifolia Dryand was 2.25 mg mL-1. Our data indicate that methanolic root extract of C. latifolia Dryand exerts significant anticandidal activity. Thus, the findings are demonstrating its relevant therapeutic potential in clinical treatment of candidiasis.
  L. Yoga Latha , I. Darah , K. Jain and S. Sasidharan
  The methanol extract of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae), which exhibited antimicrobial activity, was tested for toxicity. In an acute toxicity study using mice, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg, and we found no pathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. As well as the oral acute toxicity study, the brine shrimp lethality test was also done. Brine shrimp test LC50 values were 3.87 mg/mL (6 h) and 2.72 mg/mL (24 h), exhibiting no significant toxicity result. In conclusion, the methanol extract of V. cinerea did not produce toxic effects in mice mice and brine shrimp.
  Z.A. Nurul , I. Darah , S.F. Shaida and S.A. Nor
  The antimicrobial activities of eight crude extracts of local Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen acquired from two different extraction; soxhlet extraction and solvent partitioning were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 18 bacteria, 3 yeasts and 6 fungi strains by Disc diffusion method. The results revealed that methanol and ethyl acetate extract from solvent partitioning exhibited broader spectrum activity against tested bacterial strains. This two extracts showed inhibition zones against strains of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 12759, Menthicilin Resistance Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Yersinia sp. and Citrobacter freundii. While methanol extracts from Soxhlet extraction and butanol from solvent partitioning had no effect against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, the other six extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against this opportunistic strain. Extracts showed a moderate average zone of inhibition ranged from 9.00-14.00 mm. Yersinia sp. showed the higher inhibition zones of 12.00 mm. However, no antifungal activity observed against tested strains of yeasts and fungi. The MIC and MBC values of selected bacterial strains tested ranged from 31.25-1000 μg mL-1 and 500-2000 μg mL-1.
  I. Darah , M.L. Choo and S.H. Lim
  Proteases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of protein and among the various proteases, bacterial proteases are the most significant when compared to animal and fungal proteases. In this study, a local bacterial isolate Bacillus megaterium IBRL MS 8.2 was found to produce the highest protease production of 155.38 U mL-1 when cultivating it in the improved medium which consisted of initial medium pH of 7.5, inoculum size of 7.5% (3x107 cells mL-1), agitation speed of 150 rpm, incubation temperature of 30°C, 0.5% of sucrose and 1.0% of beef extract. The highest protease production was achieved on the 30 h of cultivation. On the other hand, the highest cell growth of 2.33 g L-1 was achieved on 18 h of cultivation time. The data obtained suggest that enzyme production by B. megaterium IBRL MS 8.2 was not growth dependant.
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