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Articles by I. Batubara
Total Records ( 6 ) for I. Batubara
  I. Batubara , L.K. Darusman , T. Mitsunaga , M. Rahminiwati and E. Djauhari
  The aim of this study is to screen whitening agent potency of 45 Indonesian plant materials from 35 species. All plant materials were extracted with methanol and 50% ethanol which resulted to 90 extracts. The methods for screening is based on tyrosinase inhibitor potency using mushroom tyrosinase and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Scoring method was used to identify the best extract as whitening agent. Out of 90 extracts, merbau (Intsia palembanica) methanol and 50% ethanol extracts are the most potent extracts as tyrosinase inhibitor (for monophenolase and diphenolase). Their IC50 values are not significantly different with kojic acid as positive control. Based on antioxidant activity, merbau methanol extract (IC50: 3.87 μg mL-1) is the best antioxidant together with kayu putih (Melaleuca cajuputi) ethanol 50% extract (IC50: 5.76 μg mL-1) and Rhizopora sp. methanol extract (IC50: 5.90 μg mL-1). Their IC50 values are not significantly different with (+)-catechin (IC50: 2.94 μg mL-1) as positive control. In conclusion, merbau methanol extract is the most potent extract as whitening agent based on scoring data from its tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
  I. Batubara , L.K. Darusman , T. Mitsunaga , H. Aoki , M. Rahminiwati , E Djauhari and K. Yamauchi
  This study aims to obtain active compounds from Intsia palembanica with skin whitening activity. I. palembanica methanol extracts were separated using chromatography techniques and yielded 3 flavanols. Isolated compounds along with 6 other flavonoid compounds were analyzed for tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition of melanin cell growth in B16 cell. The results showed that (-)-robidanol is the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 monophenolase 8.7 μM; diphenolase 26.6 μM) and inhibit melanin synthesis 46.2% compared to control (at 100 μM). In conclusion, (-)-robidanol is the best compound as a whitening agent.
  I. Batubara , I.H. Suparto , S. Sadiah , R. Matsuoka and T. Mitsunaga
  Zingiber zerumbet contained the typically essential oils. The research aims to evaluate the effect Z. zerumbet essential oil and zerumbone inhlation on rats body weight, food consumption, parasympathetic nerve activity and brown adipose tissue temperature. The essential oils of Z. zerumbet was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet. The component in the oil and zerumbone structure was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The structure of zerumbone crystal was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Sprague dawley male adult rats were divided into 4 groups namely Normal Diet (ND) group, High Fat Diet (HFD) group, HFD inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils group and HFD inhaled zerumbone group. The results showed that inhalation of Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone increased the food consumption as well as increased the body weight. The increasing body weight of rats which inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone is by decreasing the sympathetic nerve activity. In conclusion, inhaling Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone as the major component of the oils increased the weight gain.
  H.S. Darusman , M. Rahminiwati , S. Sadiah , I. Batubara , L.K. Darusman and T. Mitsunaga
  Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) fruit has been known to have efficacy as an oral deodorant in Java Island, Indonesia for a long time. The research aimed on Indonesian Herbal Kepel as deodorant agent for reducing fecal odorants which are ammonia, trimethyl-amine and phenol. Pharmacological screening test was conducted by measuring the adsorbent activities of Kepel’s fruit (pulp, seed and peel) to odorants which can be emitted from feces, such as ammonia (NH3) and methyl-mercaptan (CH3SH). To confirm it ability as an oral deodorant, in vivo test was performed by applying it orally on rats. Kepel’s fruits pulp powder was regarded as the best absorbent agent (adsorbed 62.96 and 77.78% for NH3 and CH3SH, respectively). All fecal odorant on the 3rd and 7th day oral application result showed a significant decrease (p<0.05). Beside the odorant adsorption, it also activates the probiotic Bifidobacter sp. by increasing its population. In conclusion, kepel had a potential pharmacological activity as an oral deodorant through its adsorbent function and probiotic activation.
  I. Batubara , S. Kotsuka , K. Yamauchi , H. Kuspradini , T. Mitsunaga and L.K. Darusman
  In this study 28 Indonesian medicinal plants species has been screened as potential Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α inhibitor. Plant materials were extracted with methanol. The activity test was performed on human monocyte-derived THP-1 (ATCC No. TIB 202) which was stimulated by Lipopolyssacharide (LPS). The TNF-α production and cell viability were determined by commercial ELISA kit and WST-1, respectively. All extracts were determined for their phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents by spectrophotometry and chromatography methods. From 40 plant materials, 5 plant materials had cell viability lower than 70% at 10 ppm concentration and about 8 plant materials had good cell viability higher than 90% at 10 ppm concentration. Among 8 plant materials extract which had good cell viability, only Avicenia sp. stem and Goniothalamus macrophyllus leaf methanol extracts had high TNF-α inhibitory activity. The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were varied depending on the sample. No correlation was found between TNF-α inhibitory activity with the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and tannin content. In conclusion, among Indonesian medicinal plants, the highest potential as TNF-α inhibitors were Avicenia sp. stem and G. macrophyllus leaves.
  L.K. Darusman , I. Batubara , T. Mitsunaga , M. Rahminiwati , E. Djauhari and K. Yamauchi
  Intsia palembanica is the most potential plant having tyrosinase inhibitor over 30 Indonesian plants that have been searched. It’s active compound namely (-)-robidanol, (+)-epirobidanol and 4’-dehydroxyrobidanol had been identified and showed the tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The study aims to obtain the kinetic enzyme inhibition type of the three active compounds. About 3 g of I. palembanica methanol extract was fractionated using n-hexane soluble part, ethyl-acetate soluble part and aqueous soluble part. Compounds were isolated for the most active part (ethyl-acetate soluble part) by silica gel column chromatography. Purification of fractions was performed using preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Kinetic inhibition against tyrosinase on monophenolase and diphenolase were analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The results showed that three active compounds showed different kinetic inhibition type on monophenolase and diphenolase. The kinetic characteristics of (-)-robidanol, the most active inhibitor, on monophenolase were Km increased and Vmax did not changed while on diphenolase were Vmax decreased and Km did not change. In conclusion, (-)-robidanol is a competitive inhibitor for monophenolase and a non-competitive inhibitor for diphenolase. The kinetic data is useful for further research on mechanism of action of the whitening agent that will be formulated.
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