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Articles by I. Yildrum
Total Records ( 2 ) for I. Yildrum
  M.W. Wineland , V.L. Christensen , I. Yildrum , B.D. Fairchild , K.M. Mann and D.T. Ort
  Incubator temperature and oxygen concentrations were tested as factors determining the intestinal maturation of two lines of broiler chickens. One line was a Low G line selected because its eggs display low eggshell conductance. The second line was a High G line that grew at a reduced rate and its eggs show high eggshell conductance values. All eggs were incubated normally until the 18th day of development or the beginning of the plateau stage in oxygen consumption. At that time the eggs were divided randomly and placed into experimental cabinets operating at 36, 37 38 or 39oC in experiment 1 or with 17, 19, 21 or 23% oxygen in experiment 2. In experiment 3, the best and worst conditions observed in experiments 1 and 2 were combined in a factorial arrangement. Body weight and intestinal maturation were measured by assaying for maltase and alkaline phosphatase activities in intestinal tissues. Increasing temperatures suppressed intestinal maturation whereas increasing oxygen concentrations enhanced intestinal maturation. When examined together in a factorial arrangement, it was clear that the effects of temperature and oxygen on the embryos were independent because they did not interact. The effects of temperature and oxygen were greater on Low G broiler embryos than they were on High G type embryos. It is concluded that incubator temperatures greater than 37oC, and oxygen concentrations less than 21% are detrimental to intestinal maturation in broiler chicks.
  M.J. Wineland , V.L. Christensen , I. Yildrum , B.D. Fairchild , D.T. Ort and K.M. Mann
  We hypothesize that temperature and oxygen in conjunction with genetic lines of broilers regulate embryo thyroid function. Thyroid response of broiler embryos of the two lines was measured at different incubator temperature and oxygen concentrations at the plateau stage in oxygen consumption (days 17 to 20 of embryo development). Each of the lines showed different eggshell conductance (G) values. Eggs of the same weight from the lines of broilers were incubated identically until the 17th day of development. On the 17th day (plateau stage in oxygen consumption), eggs were randomly distributed by line into four incubators operating at 36, 37, 38 or 39oC in trial 1 or at 17, 19, 21 or 23% oxygen in trial 2. At external pipping (the end of the plateau stage in oxygen consumption) as well as at hatching ten embryos or chicks per treatment were sampled for blood plasma. Plasma was analyzed for thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations. In trial 3, temperature line of broiler and oxygen treatments were arranged factorially. Increasing temperatures suppressed hormone concentrations in embryos, and the suppression was greater with low G. Increasing oxygen increased hormone concentrations in low G embryos to a greater degree than high G. It can be concluded that incubation temperature suppresses plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in low G lines whereas oxygen increases it.
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