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Articles by I. Salmah
Total Records ( 13 ) for I. Salmah
  M.R. Mustafa , A.A. Mahmood and I. Salmah
  Trignella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is a traditionally used to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammationand gastrointestinal ailments. We evaluated the wound healing activities of fenugreek seeds on cutaneous excision wounds in rats. Three groups of male Sprague Dawley rats each consist of 6 animals. Rats were placed individually in cages and all animals were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. Pure un-boiled honey was applied topically to wounds of Group 1 animals. Wounds of Group 2 rats were treated with honey in combination with fenugreek seed extract, solcoseryl jelly were applied topically to wounds of Group 3 animals as reference. The effects of vehicles on the rate of wound infections and on the rate of wound healing were assessed in whole rats. Wounds of all groups of animals showed clean and remain sterile throughout the experiment. Wounds treated with honey in combination with fenugreek seed or wounds treated with solcoseryl jelly were significantly (p<0.05) accelerates wound healing compared to wounds treated with honey alone. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of fenugreek seed extract for the acceleration of wound healing process and the rates of wounds sterility.
  A.A. Mahmood , K. Sidik and I. Salmah
  The gastric protective effect of honey in combination with extract of fenugreek seeds was investigated in rats against ethanol-induced gastric damage. Macroscopically, oral administration of honey alone or honey in combination with seed extracts or with cimeidine induced a significantly decrease (p<0.05) in gastric lesions. Histological studies revealed that honey in combination with aqueous seeds extract was significantly more effective than honey alone or honey in combination with alcoholic extract in preventing gastric lesions formation. These observations showed that fenugreek aqueous seed extracts posse`s anti-ulcer potential.
  Mahmood, A.A. , K. Sidik and I. Salmah
  The aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves were investigated for evaluation of wound healing potential in rats. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rats each consist of 6 animals. All animals were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. Blank Vaseline was applied topically to wounds of Group 1 animals. Group 2 and Group 3 rats were treated topically with 5 and 10% Vaseline, respectively. Solcoseryl jelly was applied topically to wounds of Group 4 animals as a reference. The effects of vehicles on the rate of wound healing were assessed. Wounds treated with 5 and 10% Vaseline and wounds treated with solcoseryl jelly significantly accelerate wound healing potential compared to wounds treated with Blank Vaseline. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of plant extract for the acceleration of wound healing process in rats.
  Mahmood A.A. , K. Sidik , I. Salmah , K.A.R. Suzainur and K. Philip
  The aqueous extract of Ageratum conyzoides leaves was evaluation for their cytoprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rats each consist of 6 animals. Group I animals were pretreated with phosphate buffer saline 5 mL kg 1 as a control, where as Group II and Group III rats were pretreated with 250 mg kg 1 and 500 mg kg 1 Ageratum conyzoides extract (5 mL kg 1), respectively. Group IV rats were pretreated with cimetidine 50 mg kg 1 as reference. After 30 min all animals were administered absolute ethanol 5 mL kg 1 orally and 15 min later all rats were sacrificed. Macroscopically, oral administration of absolute ethanol to rats pretreated with PBS significantly produced extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa, whereas animals pretreated with 250 mg kg 1 and 500 mg kg 1 aqueous extract or cimetidine significantly reduced the formation of gastric lesions compared to control group. Microscopically, pretreated rats with aqueous extract or cimetidine showed significantly marked inhibition of gastric lesions and marked reduction of submucosal edema compared to control group. These results strongly document the beneficial cytoprotective effects of plant extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.
  K. Sidik , A.A. Mahmood and I. Salmah
  The aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) in combination with honey was evaluated for wound healing activity in rats. Three groups of male Sprague dawley rats each consist of 6 animals. Rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. A thin layer of pure unboiled honey was applied topically to wounds of Group 1 animals. A. sativum L. in combination with honey was applied topically to wounds of Group 2 rats and a thin layer of solcoseryl - jelly was applied topically to wounds of Group 3 animals. The effects of these topical applicants on the rate of wound infections and on the rate of wound healing were assessed. Wounds of all animals showed clean and remain sterile throughout the experiment until complete healing. Wounds treated with garlic extract in combination with honey significantly accelerate wound healing compared to wounds treated with honey alone. In addition, wounds treated with solcoseryl-jelly also significantly accelerates wound healing compared to wounds treated with honey alone. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of garlic extract in combination with honey for the acceleration of wound healing process and the rates of wounds sterility.
  A.A. Mahmood , K. Sidik , I. Salmah and K.A.R. Suzainur
  Two groups of Sprague-Dawley adult male rats each consist of 8 animals were used throughout the experiment. All rats were subcutaneous inoculated once with 108cfu/ml of Pasteurella multocida strain PMB 202. In addition, Group 1 animals also received intra-muscular injection of dexamethasone (1.6 mg/animal/day) once daily for 9 days. Blood was collected from all animals before and after inoculation once daily for 9 days, for total and differential leucocytes count. Rats were scarified at day 9 for swabs culture and histological sections of liver, spleen and lung. In dexamethasone-treated animals (Group 1), total leucocytes count decreased after 24 hours (day 1) post-infection and then leucocytosis at day 4 (96 h), then leucopenia at day 8 and 9. Differential leucocytes count revealed gradual neutrophilia and lymphopenia at 120 h post infection (maximum), then neutropenia and lymphocytosis at day 7 and 9. Swab cultured from liver, spleen, and lung revealed positive for P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus. Histological sections of such organs showed abscess formation surrounded by neutrophils. In Pasteurella multocida inoculated animals (Group 2), total leucocytes count started to increase gradually at day 1 and 2, then decreased to normal level at day 3 and leucocytosis at day 4 (maximum) and then gradual decreased to reach the normal level at day 9. Differential leucocytes count revealed, neutropenia and lymphocytosis at 24 hour post infection, and remain with the same level reaching maximun at day 9 with atypical lymphocytes. Swab cultured from liver, spleen and lungs showed negative for bacterial isolation. Histological sections of such organs reveled erythrocyte infiltration and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells.
  Mahmood, A.A , K. Sidik , U.R. Kuppusamy , K.A.R.Suzainur , M.Indran and I. Salmah
  Honey alone or, honey in combination with O. bacilicum oil or with cimitidine was found to posse`s significant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulceration in experimental animal models macroscopically and microscopically. Significant inhibition was observed against ethanol-induced ulceration. Macroscopically, oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml kg-1 body weight) to fasted rats produced extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with honey alone (5 ml kg-1 body weight) or honey in combination with O. bacilicum oil extracts (5 ml kg-1 body weight) or honey in combination with cimitidine (5 ml kg-1 body weight) orally 30 minutes before administration of absolute alcohol significantly prevent or reduced the formation of such lesion. Microscopically, pretreatment rats showed significantly marked inhibition or reduction of gastric damage and no submucosal edema or leucocytes infiltration.
  Noor, S.M. , A.A. Mahmood , I. Salmah and K. Philip
  Cytoprotective effects are important in preventing the formation of gastric mucosa necrosis. Rafflesia hasseltii, used in traditional aboriginal Malay treatment of postpartum women, was evaluated for its cytoprotective effects. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts of the plant were evaluated to determine which extract offers better protection of the gastric mucosa in terms of inhibiting ulcer damage. Gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5mL kg-1) to 4 groups of fasting rats: the ulcer control rats which received no pre-treatments (Group 1); rats pre-treated with oral aqueous extracts of R. hasseltii (Group 2); rats pre-treated with oral ethanolic extracts of R. hasseltii (Group 3) and rats pre-treated with oral cimetidine (Group 4). Oral pre-treatments were given 30 minutes prior to oral induction of ulcers by absolute alcohol. Animals in Group 1 experienced severe gastric damage following absolute ethanol administration, with absolutely no inhibition. Group 2 and Group 3 rats exhibited the highest degree of inhibition to ethanol-induced ulcer damage, by a percentage 99.2 and 98.9% inhibition, respectively. Animals in Group 4, the cimetidine group, had only 59.4% inhibition to ethanol-induced gastric damage. The results suggested that R. hasseltii possess novel cytoprotective activity on gastric mucosal cells and undeniably beneficial for treating gastric ulcer.
  S. H. Lim , I. Salmah , W. L. Ooi , K. Sushil , A. M. Sahilah , R. Son , Moushumi Ghosh , Sunita Bansal and Abhijit Ganguli
  One of the uniqueness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is it inability to ferment sorbitol in 24 h and its negative test with the MUG assay, although this organism carried the UidA gene which encodes for -glucuronidase in its chromosome. Primers were designed based on the sequence of the -glucuronidase gene and were evaluated in a polymerase chain reaction assays as a marker to detect E. coli O157:H7. Of the three pairs of primers tested, which produces the estimated product size of 352, 271 and 353 bp respectively, one primer pairs (UidA2F & UidA2R) was found to be more specific and useful as a marker in combination with a published primer for the H7 gene for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7.
  S. H. Lim , I. Salmah , W. L. Ooi , K. Sushil , A. M. Sahilah and R. Son
  One of the uniqueness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is it inability to ferment sorbitol in 24 h and its negative test with the MUG assay, although this organism carried the UidA gene which encodes for -glucuronidase in its chromosome. Primers were designed based on the sequence of the -glucuronidase gene and were evaluated in a polymerase chain reaction assays as a marker to detect E. coli O157:H7. Of the three pairs of primers tested, which produces the estimated product size of 352, 271 and 353 bp respectively, one primer pairs (UidA2F & UidA2R) was found to be more specific and useful as a marker in combination with a published primer for the H7 gene for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7.
  A.A. Mahmood , K. Sidik , I. Salmah , K.A.R. Suzainur and K.M. Yusoff
  The gastroprotective effects of honey and methanol extract of P. granatum L. fruit peel and N. sativa L seeds were investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced gastric damage. 5 groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used throughout the experiment. Oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml kg-1 body weight) to fasted rats produced extensive lesions of gastric mucosa (Group 2). Pretreatment with honey (2.5 g kg-1 body weight) alone (Group 3) or honey in combination with each of P. granatum L. (0.1 g kg-1) (Group 4) or N. sativa L. (0.1 g kg-1) extracts (Group 5) orally 30 min before administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml kg-1) decreased or prevented the formation of such lesion. The observed protection was more pronounced when honey combined with each extract than honey alone. Honey in combination with N sativa L. completely ablated gastric lesions. Although the mechanism of gastric cytoprotection is unknown, honey in combination with each plant extracts appears to increase the resistance of gastric mucosal cells to the necrotizing effect of strong irritants (absolute alcohol). These results suggest that honey in combination with N. sativa L. or P. granatum L. extracts maintain the cellular integrity of the gastric mucosa, and might be beneficial in the treatment of a variety of diseases in which gastric mucosal injury is present.
  A. A. Mahmood , K. Sidik , K. A. R. Suzainur , M. Indran and I. Salmah
  Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats each consist of ten animals. All animals were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. Normal saline was applied topically to wounds of Group 1 as a negative control and pure un-boiled honey was applied topically to wounds of Group 2 animals. Wounds of Group 3 rats were treated with honey in combined with Chromolaena odorata aqueous leave extract. Group 4 rats act as positive control and treated with solcoseryl - Jelly. The effects of vehicles on the rate of wound healing and rate of infections were assessed. Wounds treated with honey alone or honey in combination with plant extracts and solcoseryl –Jelly showed clean and remain sterile and significantly healed earlier and much faster as compared to wounds treated with normal saline (Group 1). Wounds treated with solcosery – Jelly or honey in combination with plant extract also showed significantly earlier healing than honey alone There were no significant differences in wound healing rate between plant extract and solcoseryl - Jelly. This was indicated by improve rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization and result in minimal scar formation. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of honey in combined with this extract for the acceleration of wound healing process, minimal scar formation, and the rates of wounds sterility.
  M.A. Siti Fatimah Zahra , A.A. Mahmood , M.A. Hapipah , M.N. Suzita and I. Salmah
  The ulcer healing activity of whole-plant extract of Ficus deltoidea was studied in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. Four groups of adult male Sprague dawley rats were pre-treated respectively with: distilled water (negative control), 250 and 500 mg kg-1 F. deltoidea extract (experimental) and omeprazole (positive control) 30 min before oral administration with absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After 1 h later, the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas and histological sections of gastric walls were determined. Grossly, the negative control rats exhibited 7 mucosal injury whereas pre-treatment with F. deltoidea or omeprazole resulted in significantly less gastric mucosal lesions produced by ulcerogens. The gastric protection was more prominent in 500 mg kg-1 F. deltoidea extract than 250 mg kg-1. Histological studies confirmed the results wherein compared to the pre-treated and thus cytoprotected groups of rats, the negative control rats showed very severe and deep gastric mucosal necrotic damage, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. In conclusion, the present finding suggests that F. deltoidea extract promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative significant decreases in ulcer areas and inhibition of submucosal edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer.
 
 
 
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