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Articles by I dos Santos Silva
Total Records ( 3 ) for I dos Santos Silva
  L Gibson , N Johnson , A Fraser , I dos Santos Silva , R Houlston , J Peto and O. Fletcher

SMAD7 and GREM1 are signaling components on the transforming growth factor-β pathway, which regulates normal mammary gland development and has been implicated in breast tumor invasion and metastasis. Three variants within SMAD7 and two variants in CRAC1 (a colorectal cancer–associated region on chromosome 15 in which GREM1 is located) have been associated with colorectal cancer risks [odds ratios (OR), 0.85-1.26; all P < 10–7]. We genotyped these five variants in a series of 1,267 bilateral breast cancer cases and 900 controls to determine whether they are associated with breast as well as colorectal cancer risk. None of these single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with breast cancer risk in our study and the 95% confidence limits of our data, pooled with data from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility study, exclude per allele ORs of <0.94 or >1.08. One or more of these variants may be associated with a very small OR for breast cancer, but our data suggest that the effects of these alleles are cancer site–specific. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1934–6)

  R. L Milne , J Benitez , H Nevanlinna , T Heikkinen , K Aittomaki , C Blomqvist , J. I Arias , M. P Zamora , B Burwinkel , C. R Bartram , A Meindl , R. K Schmutzler , A Cox , I Brock , G Elliott , M. W. R Reed , M. C Southey , L Smith , A. B Spurdle , J. L Hopper , F. J Couch , J. E Olson , X Wang , Z Fredericksen , P Schurmann , M Bremer , P Hillemanns , T Dork , P Devilee , C. J van Asperen , R. A. E. M Tollenaar , C Seynaeve , P Hall , K Czene , J Liu , Y Li , S Ahmed , A. M Dunning , M Maranian , P. D. P Pharoah , G Chenevix Trench , J Beesley , kConFab Investigators , N. N Antonenkova , I. V Zalutsky , H Anton Culver , A Ziogas , H Brauch , C Justenhoven , Y. D Ko , S Haas , P. A Fasching , R Strick , A. B Ekici , M. W Beckmann , G. G Giles , G Severi , L Baglietto , D. R English , O Fletcher , N Johnson , I dos Santos Silva , J Peto , C Turnbull , S Hines , A Renwick , N Rahman , B. G Nordestgaard , S. E Bojesen , H Flyger , D Kang , K. Y Yoo , D. Y Noh , A Mannermaa , V Kataja , V. M Kosma , M Garcia Closas , S Chanock , J Lissowska , L. A Brinton , J Chang Claude , S Wang Gohrke , C. Y Shen , H. C Wang , J. C Yu , S. T Chen , M Bermisheva , T Nikolaeva , E Khusnutdinova , M. K Humphreys , J Morrison , R Platte , D. F Easton and on behalf of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. We attempted to confirm this association using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.


2q35-rs13387042 SNP was genotyped for 31 510 women with invasive breast cancer, 1101 women with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 35 969 female control subjects from 25 studies. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in odds ratios by each of age, ethnicity, and study was assessed by fitting interaction terms. Heterogeneity by each of invasiveness, family history, bilaterality, and hormone receptor status was assessed by subclassifying case patients and applying polytomous logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.


We found strong evidence of association between rs13387042 and breast cancer in white women of European origin (per-allele OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.15; Ptrend = 1.0 x 10–19). The odds ratio was lower than that previously reported (P = .02) and did not vary by age or ethnicity (all P ≥ .2). However, it was higher when the analysis was restricted to case patients who were selected for a strong family history (P = .02). An association was observed for both ER-positive (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.17; P = 10–15) and ER-negative disease (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.15; P = .0003) and both progesterone receptor (PR)–positive (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.19; P = 5 x 10–14) and PR-negative disease (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.15; P = .00002).


The rs13387042 is associated with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer in European women.

  D Nitsch , L Kadalayil , P Mangtani , R Steenkamp , D Ansell , C Tomson , I Dos Santos Silva and P. Roderick

Background: The UK Renal Registry (UKRR) reports on equity and quality of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Ethnic origin is a key variable, but it is only recorded for 76% patients overall in the UKRR and there is wide variation in the degree of its completeness between renal centres. Most South Asians have distinctive names.

Aim: To test the relative performance of a computerized name recognition algorithm (SANGRA) in identifying South Asian names using the UKRR database.

Design: Cross-sectional study of patients (n = 27 832) starting RRT in 50 renal centres in England and Wales from 1997 to 2005.

Methods: Kappa statistics were used to assess the degree of agreement of SANGRA coding with existing ethnicity information in UKRR centres.

Results: In 12 centres outside London (number of patients = 7555) with 11% (n = 747) self-ascribed South Asian ethnicity, the level of agreement between SANGRA and self-ascribed ethnicity was high (=0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.93). In two London centres (n = 779) with 21% (n = 165) self-ascribed South Asian ethnicity, SANGRA's agreement with self-ascribed ethnicity was lower (=0.60, 95% CI 0.54–0.67), primarily due to difficulties in distinguishing between South Asian ethnicity and other non-White ethnic minorities. Use of SANGRA increased numbers defined as South Asian from 1650 to 2076 with no overall change in percentage of South Asians. Kappa values showed no obvious association with degree of missing data returns to the UKRR.

Conclusion: SANGRA's use, taking into account its lower validity in London, allows increased power and generalizability for both ethnic specific analyses and for analyses where adjustment for ethnic origin is important.

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