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Articles by I Ivanov
Total Records ( 6 ) for I Ivanov
  I Ivanov , R Bansal , X Hao , H Zhu , C Kellendonk , L Miller , J Sanchez Pena , A. M Miller , M. M Chakravarty , K Klahr , K Durkin , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson
  Objective

The role of the thalamus in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains poorly understood. The authors used anatomical MRI to examine the morphology of the thalamus in youths with ADHD and healthy comparison youths.

Method

The authors examined 46 youths with ADHD and 59 comparison youths 8–18 years of age in a cross-sectional case-control study. Conventional volumes and measures of surface morphology of the thalamus served as the main outcome measures.

Results

A mixed-effects model comparing whole thalamic volumes revealed no significant differences between groups. Maps of the thalamic surface revealed significantly smaller regional volumes bilaterally in the pulvinar in youths with ADHD relative to comparison subjects. Post hoc analyses showed that ADHD patients who received stimulants (N=31) had larger conventional thalamic volumes than untreated youths with ADHD, and maps of the thalamic surface showed enlargement over the pulvinar in those receiving stimulants. Smaller regional volumes in the right lateral and left posterior thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe hyperactivity symptoms, whereas larger regional volumes in the right medial thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe symptoms of inattention.

Conclusion

These findings demonstrate reduced pulvinar volumes in youths with ADHD and indicate that this same area is relatively enlarged in patients treated with stimulants compared to those untreated. Associations of hyperactivity scores with smaller regional volumes on the lateral thalamic surface and inattention scores with larger regional volumes on the medial thalamic surface suggest the differential involvement of thalamic subcircuits in the pathogenesis of differing ADHD symptoms.

  L. J Sobel , R Bansal , T. V Maia , J Sanchez , L Mazzone , K Durkin , J Liu , X Hao , I Ivanov , A Miller , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson
  Objective

Disturbances in the basal ganglia portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits likely contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD.

Method

A total of 104 individuals (combined-type ADHD patients: N=47; healthy comparison subjects: N=57), aged 7 to 18 years, were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Conventional volumes and the surface morphology for the basal ganglia were measured.

Results

Overall volumes were significantly smaller only in the putamen. Analysis of the morphological surfaces revealed significant inward deformations in each of the three nuclei, localized primarily in portions of these nuclei that are components of limbic, associative, and sensorimotor pathways in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which these nuclei reside. The more prominent these inward deformations were in the patient group, the more severe the ADHD symptoms. Surface analyses also demonstrated significant outward deformations of all basal ganglia nuclei in the ADHD children treated with stimulants compared with those ADHD youth who were untreated. These stimulant-associated enlargements were in locations similar to the reduced volumes detected in the ADHD group relative to the comparison group. The outward deformations associated with stimulant medications attenuated the statistical effects of the primary group comparisons.

Conclusions

These findings potentially represent evidence of anatomical dysregulation in the circuitry of the basal ganglia in children with ADHD and suggest that stimulants may normalize morphological features of the basal ganglia in children with the disorder.

  C Zhao , I Ivanov , E. R Dougherty , T. J Hartman , E Lanza , G Bobe , N. H Colburn , J. R Lupton , L. A Davidson and R. S. Chapkin
 

We have developed novel molecular methods using a stool sample, which contains intact sloughed colon cells, to quantify colonic gene expression profiles. In this study, our goal was to identify diagnostic gene sets (combinations) for the noninvasive classification of different phenotypes. For this purpose, the effects of a legume-enriched, low glycemic index, high fermentable fiber diet was evaluated in subjects with four possible combinations of risk factors, including insulin resistance and a history of adenomatous polyps. In a randomized crossover design controlled feeding study, each participant (a total of 23; 5–12 per group) consumed the experimental diet (1.5 cups of cooked dry beans) and a control diet (isocaloric average American diet) for 4 weeks with a 3-week washout period between diets. Using prior biological knowledge, the complexity of feature selection was reduced to perform an exhaustive search on all allowable feature (gene) sets of size 3, and among these, 27 had (unbiased) error estimates of 0.15 or less. Linear discriminant analysis was successfully used to identify the best single genes and two- to three-gene combinations for distinguishing subjects with insulin resistance, a history of polyps, or exposure to a chemoprotective legume-rich diet. These results support our premise that gene products (RNA) isolated from stool have diagnostic value in terms of assessing colon cancer risk.

  L. A Davidson , N Wang , I Ivanov , J Goldsby , J. R Lupton and R. S. Chapkin
 

With respect to functional mapping of gene expression signatures, the steady-state mRNA expression level does not always accurately reflect the status of critical signaling proteins. In these cases, control is exerted at the epigenetic level of recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, the factories of ribosomes that mediate efficient translation of many cellular messages. However, to date, a genome-wide perspective of the effect of carcinogen and chemoprotective bioactive diets on actively translated (polysomal) mRNA populations has not been done. Therefore, we used an established colon cancer model, i.e., the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat, in combination with a chemoprotective diet extensively studied in our laboratory, i.e., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, to characterize the molecular processes underlying the transformation of normal colonic epithelium. The number of genes affected by AOM treatment 10 weeks after carcinogen injection was significantly greater in the polysome RNA fraction compared with the total RNA fraction as determined using a high-density microarray platform. In particular, polysomal loading patterns of mRNAs associated with the Wnt-β catenin, phospholipase A2-eicosanoid and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling axes were significantly upregulated at a very early period of tumor development in the colon. These data indicate that translational alterations are far more extensive relative to transcriptional alterations in mediating malignant transformation. In contrast, transcriptional alterations were found to be more extensive relative to translational alterations in mediating the effects of diet. Therefore, during early stage colonic neoplasia, diet and carcinogen seem to predominantly regulate gene expression at multiple levels via unique mechanisms.

  L. A Davidson , N Wang , M. S Shah , J. R Lupton , I Ivanov and R. S. Chapkin
 

We have hypothesized that dietary modulation of intestinal non-coding RNA [microRNA (miRNA)] expression may contribute to the chemoprotective effects of nutritional bioactives (fish oil and pectin). To fully understand the effects of these agents on the expression of miRNAs, Sprague–Dawley rats were fed diets containing corn oil or fish oil with pectin or cellulose and injected with azoxymethane (AOM, a colon-specific carcinogen) or saline (control). Real-time polymerase chain reaction using miRNA-specific primers and Taq ManTM probes was carried out to quantify effects on miRNA expression in colonic mucosa. From 368 mature miRNAs assayed, at an early stage of cancer progression (10 week post AOM injection), let-7d, miR-15b, miR-107, miR-191 and miR-324-5p were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diet x carcinogen interactions. Overall, fish oil fed animals exhibited the smallest number of differentially expressed miRNAs (AOM versus saline treatment). With respect to the tumor stage (34 week post AOM injection), 46 miRNAs were dysregulated in adenocarcinomas compared with normal mucosa from saline-injected animals. Of the 27 miRNAs expressed at higher (P < 0.05) levels in tumors, miR-34a, 132, 223 and 224 were overexpressed at >10-fold. In contrast, the expression levels of miR-192, 194, 215 and 375 were dramatically reduced (≤0.32-fold) in adenocarcinomas. These results demonstrate for the first time the utility of the rat AOM model and the novel role of fish oil in protecting the colon from carcinogen-induced miRNA dysregulation.

 
 
 
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