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Articles by Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
Total Records ( 18 ) for Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem , M. F.B.M. Sidik and Yuganthira R.A.L. Munusammy
  Problem statement: When a vehicle is parked under the direct sun, the accumulated heat is affecting many interiors inside the vehicle cabin, such as the vinyl materials of the dashboard, the leather covers and the electronic components. Also, it represents an uncomfortable operating period for the passengers. The studies under this topic are entitled by the vehicle manufacturers as "Vehicle Cabin Comfort". Approach: In the present study, experimental and numerical analyses were conducted. The experimental results were obtained from measurements on a salon car parked in un-shaded area. Six different cases had been investigated consisting of full windows closing case, four different windows opening settings and sun shade usage case. The temperature at 12 different locations inside the car had been recorded for many days and the mean values are used as initial and boundary conditions to run the 3-D computational simulation. The CFD simulation was carried out by FLUENT software. Results: Both experimental and CFD simulation results revealed that the most hot air was accumulated in the top part of the cabin and natural circulation take place with large scale cavity due to natural heat transfer from the dashboard and the rear windshield. The drop down of the front side windows by 20 mm caused reduction in the front air gap by 20%. The sunshade on the front had considerably reduced the heat accumulation inside the cabin, where the dashboard surface temperature dropped by 26% and the maximum air temperature was found to be 27% lower. Conclusion: The use of the sunshade and/or dropdown windows on both sides reduced the heat accumulation due to fresh air exchange with the exterior environment.
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem , Nadia M. Zaki , Muhamad Z. Asyraf and Mahir E. Elfeel
  Problem statement: Oil well cleaning is the ability of a drilling fluid to suspend and transport drilled cuttings from the down hole (bit face) to the surface. The cleaning performance was affected by many factors such as fluid viscosity, annular flow velocity, angle of inclination and drill cuttings size and shape and. Approach: Navier-Stoke equations, the continuity equation and the power law of non-Newtonian viscosity model were adopted to establish the mathematical model of the cutting transport process in the annulus of the well. The constants of the power law model were evaluated experimentally for three different mud types. The CFD simulation to solve the governing equations was carried out by using FLUENT commercial code. The specifications of the particles, the pumping head and feeding conditions were obtained from a drilling site in Sudan. Results: Simulation of the mud flow in the annulus had shown that in spite of the laminar nature of the flow, the velocity profile was flattening over wide area of the annulus. Such condition was referred to as fog flow and was preferable to produce uniform drag distribution to lift the particles without rotation during the transportation process. The analysis had been conducted for various mud charging rates ranging from 600-900 GPM, in 30° diverted orientation well. The investigation of cuttings size was conducted for 2.54, 4.45 and 7 mm. Also, the effect of the cuttings shape with 1, 0.9 and 0.85 was investigated and it was found that higher sphereicity have better cleaning efficiency. Conclusion: The analyses revealed that for 30° diverted orientation; the effective cleaning performance was achieved when the drilling mud charging was higher than 800 GPM for all types of tested cuttings. The simulation results revealed that there was a significant effect of the cuttings size on the cuttings transport. Fine particles are the easiest to clean out.
  Hasanain A. Abdul Wahhab , Mahdi A. Ismael , A. Rashid A. Aziz , Morgan R. Heikal and Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
  Background and Objective: Using Natural Gas (NG) for combustion process modification in compression ignition engines is considered to be a promising method due to its high volumetric efficiency, high thermal efficiency and low emissions. However, the natural gas has a penalty in terms of how to be involved in a combustion process due to its high auto-ignition temperature and lower cetane number. This study is a numerical investigation of the steady spray characteristics of diesel fuel containing dissolved natural gas. Materials and Methods: The simulation was carried out using ANSYS fluent software and a standard k-ε model was chosen with heat transfer condition at 300 K. The effect of natural gas concentration of 0, 5, 10 and 15% by mass in the diesel fuel on the spray characteristics for a typical diesel engine was studied numerically. A high pressure common rail injector with pressure of 200, 500 and 600 bar was investigated. Results: The results showed that the spray tip velocities increased with the increase in the natural gas concentration and injection pressure, while the spray cone angle of diesel-NG were smaller compared to that of pure diesel at the same conditions. Conclusion: The K-ε model of turbulence was successfully used to evaluate the spray characteristics and the results were compared to the some of the experimental data.
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem , Hasanain A. Abdul Wahhab and A. Rashid A. Aziz
  Background and Objective: The gas hydrothermal behaviour is strongly influencing the engine performance. The flow behaviour may be modified through the unavoidable installation of a flow restrictions and modifiers into the intake and exhaust systems and consequently the engine performance is adversely altered. The objective of this study was to perform a numerical modeling and analysis to predict the flow characteristics in the inlet and exhaust manifolds of a four-stroke single cylinder gasoline internal combustion engine. Materials and Methods: The flow at the intake and exhaust was simulated using ANSYS FLUENT employing boundary conditions at valves timing at critical points of opening and closing. A user define function has been coded to relate the valves and piston motions to generate the moving mesh inside the cylinder. Results: The results demonstrated some reversal flow cases, at certain positions of the valves. At crank angle around 570o the flow was reversed from the cylinder to the manifold, while at crank angle of around 370o, the flow was reversed from the manifold to the cylinder. Conclusion: The results obtained from the simulation code be used as guide to improve the understanding of the hydrothermal behaviour of the fluids in the manifolds and might be utilized to improve the manifold design.
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem , Tawfiq W. Salih and Abbas S.A. Al-Ambari
  The supersonic flow approaching the intake of a supersonic aero engine must be brought to subsonic state before reaching the compressor face stage. The velocity reduction is combined with reduction in the total pressure of the flow which is not preferred by the designer of the supersonic gas turbine. In the present paper, analytical and two different numerical techniques were coupled to analyze the flow field in 2-D, compressible, supersonic spiked intake. The analyses were carried out at Mach number between 1.8 to 2.2 and spike angles of 12 and 20°. The flow field was subdivided into external part which was solved analytically and internal part which was solved numerically. The numerical analyses ware carried out under two assumptions; method I: non viscous flow and method II: viscous flow. The results are presented and compared based on the predicted values of the pressure recovery at the face of the compressor. The procedure was verified by comparing with previous experimental works. It was found that the pressure recovery is slightly influenced by the viscosity up to 2.14 Mach. The pressure recovery values predicted from the non viscous assumption were higher than the corresponding values obtained from the viscous solution. The viscosity contribution becomes more significant as the spike angle is increased from 12 to 20° where noticeable differences in the pressure recovery values were predicted. Accordingly, the diffusion analysis of compressible flow in such conditions assuming viscous, is essential.
  Tadahmun A. Yassen , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem , Maki H. Khalaf and Nassir D. Dhamin
  A mathematical model is presented to study the performance of thermal storage for excess solar energy at day to heat a living room using a tank of water as thermal storage. The study studies the relationship between the room temperature and the appropriate tank geometries through the day hours. Two storage geometries have been studied; the tank surface area which was varied from 6-12 m2 and the storage water mass per unit area of the collectors (50-70 kg m-2) on the storage temperature. The study is based on several years collected data including solar intensity, ambient temperature and the wind speed which were measured in Tikrit city-North West of Iraq-in January. The solar collector was constructed from multiple standard units; each unit is (1 m) width and (2 m) length. Each unit consists of six copper pipes with 10 mm diameter and 2 m long covered by galvanized steel sheet 1 mm thickness and a glass cover of 3 mm thickness. The mathematical model was converted to a simulation computer program accounting for all effective parameters on heat transfer in the heated room space, the collector and the storage tank. The results show that thermal storage has an important effect on raising the room temperature for many hours in the evening and nearly reaching the comfortable conditions requested at night.
  Firas B. Ismail Alnaimi and Hussain H. AL-Kayiem
  Steam Boilers are important equipment in power plants and the boilers trip may lead to the entire plant shutdown. To maintain performance in normal and safe operation conditions, detecting of the possible boiler trips in critical time is crucial. Artificial Neural network applications for steam boilers trips are developed designed and parameterized. In this present study, the developed systems are a fault detection and diagnosis neural network model. Some priori knowledge of the demands in network topology for specific application cases is required by this approach, so that the infinite search space of the problem is limited to a reasonable degree. Both one-hidden-layer and two-hidden-layers network architectures are explored using neural network with trial and error approach. 32 Boiler parameters are identified for the boiler FDDNN analysis. The power plant experience has been imposed to select the most important parameters related to the superheated monitoring contribution on the boiler trip.
  Nassir D. Mokhlif and Hussain H. Al-kayiem
  Waxing-dewaxing process during the lubricating oil manufacturing is a multi phase, multi component flow with heat and mass transfer. Such process needs mathematical description of wax crystallization, fluid flow and heat transfer to predict e.g., mass fraction, crystals number, size and shape, pressure drop and temperatures distribution incrementally along the flow. The present study deals with the modeling and analysis of the waxing-dewaxing process. The exact solution is not achievable and the numerical technique is the best adaption to simulate and solve the governing equations of multi phase, multi component of the non-Newtonian feed stock flow in the wax scraper system. The study, also, consists of chemical analysis to predict the thermal and physical properties of feedstock, wax content, cloud point and pour point. The simulation results will be compared with the site operation data.
  Aja Ogboo Chikere , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim
  Due to the low plant efficiency associated with Solar Chimney Power Plant, there is a need for the plant performance enhancement. This study presents the enhancement techniques of solar chimney power plant. It reviews previous works that had been done in performance enhancement of solar chimney power plants. It also, introduces an alternative approach to enhance the solar chimney performance by hybridizing the solar operation mode and waste heat energy from flue gas. The new idea is to convert the waste thermal energy in the flue to useful thermal energy in a Solar Chimney Power Plant collector. It is another form of waste heat energy recovery and utilization method.
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Amir H. Ghanizadeh
  As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the heat transferred to the turbine blade also increases. The operating temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades for safe operation. In the present study the internal cooling of a gas turbine blade is analyzed. The blade has a rectangular 9x18 mm compressed air channel along the blade span. Finite-Difference method is used to predict temperature distribution for blade cross section at different heights from the root. Effect of compressed air mass flow rate, inlet temperature and the temperature of combustion gasses have been considered. The investigations are carried out for both smooth and two opposite ribbed-walls channels. The results are presented and discussed as temperature distribution in various sections of the blade and also the comparison between ribbed and smooth channel hydrothermal values. Various ribs configurations have been considered in the analysis. Results at rib angles, α of 90, 60, 45 and 30° and ribs blockage ratios, e/Dh ranging from 0.042 to 0.078 are compared in terms of Nu and friction factor, f. It is found that maximum Nu number occurs when 60° ribs are introduced in the channel. An enhancement of 149.45% is achieved with penalty of increase in the friction factor by 114.5%.
  K.V. Sreejaya , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani
  The solar chimney is a technology, which has been already proved of being capable to generate electrical energy from the sun. On the other hand, the solar chimney has been used on the roof of housing for ventilation purpose. Since the sun is not available during night and cloudy days, there should be another source of input to guarantee continuous operation of the system. Present study is the development of experimental, computational and mathematical models of “On Roof Solar Chimney” for small-scale power generation. The objective of the present study is to review the similar works and to present a mathematical model of a solar chimney operation and analyze the analytical result. The model involves the energy and mass transportation in the system under steady state conditions. Heat transfer equations were set up to determine the boundary temperatures at the surface of the glass cover, the rear solar heat absorbing wall and the air flow in the channel using a thermal resistance network. Results showed the transient behavior of the system during the day. With model area of 15 m2, the highest velocity of 0.17 m sec-1 is predicted at around the mid day time. The mass flow rate increases as the solar radiation increase. The area is a vital parameter in the successful application of the technique. Also enhancement technique to rise up the collector temperature would improve the performance considerably.
  Haitham B. Al-Wakeel , Z.A. Abdul Karim , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and M.H. Mat Jamlus
  The aim of study is soot reduction strategy by using microwave radiation. As a first step toward the aim is a review. This study provides a review of soot particles generation and their influence on air pollution and illustrates the diesel particulate matter emission regulation, composition, and characterization including size, shape, process, and oxidation. The paper also discusses the effect of temperature, pressure, air/fuel ratio, exhaust flow rate, fuel type on soot process and heat release from soot combustion. The use of filter regeneration strategies for reducing soot emission from vehicles, stationary plants and factories due to the burning of diesel fuel have been presented with advantage and disadvantage of each method. The various strategies include catalyst, fuel injection, electric heating, engine operation condition control, non-thermal plasma, and absorbed microwave energy. The practical feasibility for soot oxidation by microwave heating technique has been explained depending on soot material property. The proposed new technique utilizing the reflected and absorbed energies of microwave for soot reduction strategy is presented to develop a new emission after-treatment system. The new system will be modeled and simulated using appropriate software. The simulation results will be validated experimentally.
  Nassir D. Mokhlif , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and M.B. Baharom
  The wax crystallization in the solvent dewaxing is complicated process since it involves multi components flow with phase change of dissolved hydrocarbonates which solidified as wax crystals. In this study, an estimation mathematical model of the real solvent dewaxing unit was implemented. The model combined the energy balance equations and the mass-momentum balance in terms of the population balance for the kinetics of the wax crystallization phenomena. The transport equations were solved numerically to obtain the wax crystal size distribution, wax volume fraction along the pipeline of the heat exchanger and chiller in a solvent dewaxing process. Experimental measurements were conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimeter to analysis the dissolved temperature, onset crystallization temperature and the wax content. The results measurement results were used as the main input parameters to the model for the Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) prediction in Solvent Dewaxing. The developed numerical model was proved to be capable to predict wax crystallization characteristics for different operating conditions of such complex process.
  Thar M. Badri and Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
  An analytical solution for piezolaminated shell structure and embedded smart materials is presented in this study. In this study, the fundamental theory was derived based on the generic first-order transversely shearable deformation theory involving Codazzi-Gauss geometrical discretion. The fundamental equation and its boundary conditions was strenuously derived using Hamilton’s principle with cooperating of Gibbs free energy function. The theory was casted in version of shell of revolution, in order to be simplified to account for commonly occurring sensors and actuator geometries and intended for wide range of common smart materials. Then the developed theory was solved by the generic forced-solution procedure. The responses and their frequency parameters were evaluated in the simply supported boundary condition. The results have shown a close agreement with those reported in literature. The developed theory and the presented solution procedure may serve as a reference in developing the magneto-thermo-electro-elastic shell theories and to improve the benchmark solutions for judging the existence of imprecise theories and other numerical approaches.
  Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Tan Fok Hon
  The bulky size of gas turbine has always become a great factor and limit in designing oil and gas offshore platforms. This study presents simulations results on the effect of energy promoters in an aggressive intermediate gas turbine diffuser. A typical S-shaped diffuser is modeled and simulated to become in FLUENT 6.3.26 assuming 2-D and incompressible flow. The promoters were selected with triangular shape of 25° frontal edge. The effect of energy promoters was investigated with various configurations to obtain the best height and position. The simulation was carried out with five different heights of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm and five different promoter locations in the upstream part of the diffuser. The exit static pressure recovery, which ultimately affects the diffuser’s efficiency, was adopted as an indication for the diffuser performance. The simulation results show that the energy promoters works as intended but still far from reaching the benchmark efficiency of a normal/ideal diffuser. Among 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25° of location angles in the inlet bend, the 10° location was found to be the most effective location. The promoters with 2.0 mm height display the highest exit pressure recovery. Further simulation will be required in three dimensional, as well as experimental investigations to explore furthermore on the promoters contribution in enhancing the diffusers efficiency.
  Saw Chun Lin , Hussain H. Al-Kayiem and Mohd Shiraz Bin Aris
  Extension of the operational time of a solar water heating system is essential for overnight industrial and domestic use. One technique is by integrating the solar water heater with thermal energy storage. In the present study, an outdoor experimental investigation of Integrated Phase Change Material (PCM)-flat plate solar collector was carried out with paraffin wax. The absorber plate was modified by installing extended surfaces into the PCM reservoir to increase the heat transfer area. Paraffin wax is used to store heat during the day time. Water is the heating medium and was circulated between a 120 L water tank and the solar collector by pumping. Two cases have been investigated that is with and without PCM. It was found that on the average, 0.5 kg min-1 10 to 20° inclination angles with PCM can provide promising 38°C hot water temperature for daytime demand with 52±2.2% efficiency. PCM case gives the highest performance when considering the day and night time efficiency compared to the case of without PCM.
  Mohd Amin Shoushtari and Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
  Oil production involves significant heat exchange between the wellbore fluid and its surroundings. During production, the hot fluid losses heat to the cold surroundings, continuously as it moves up the borehole. The heat transfer process impacts well-integrity and, in turn, the ability of the well to perform its required function effectively and efficiently whilst safeguarding life and the environment. One often overlooked heat transfer effect is increase in annulus pressure resulting from annular fluid thermal expansion, which can result in tubing collapse or casing burst. Damage due to high annular pressure can dramatically affect the well-integrity. During the design phase of a well, it is necessary to avoid risks and uncertainties and look at its planned life cycle. This study intends to investigate wellbore heat transfer and its impact on the well-integrity. Moreover; the results of the present work can be used for the preliminary design calculation of oil wells to estimate changes in some thermo-physical properties of the annular fluids. This study provides a baseline for temperature related well-integrity problems in oil wells.
  Ibrahim T. Nazal and Hussain H. Al-Kayiem
  Adding bio-fuels to pure diesel may reduce the environmental harming but on other hand, the performance of the combustion would influence. The aim of this study is to present an investigation results on the effects of sunflower oil blend to pure diesel on the performance of single cylinder compression ignition engine. Three mixtures included sunflower oil/diesel ratios of 5:95, 8:92 and 11:89 in addition to pure diesels as a base, were tested. The experimental tests were carried out by using four stroke engine with a single-cylinder and 21:1 compression ratio. The engine performance was measured at various operating conditions. The results indicated that when sunflower-diesel fuel mixture used, the brake power of the engine slightly decreased while, the brake thermal efficiency showed decrease compared with diesel fuel. At the same time, it was found that break specific fuel consumption also increased compared with the pure diesel fuel. The exhaust gas temperature was decreased compared with the case of using pure diesel fuel.
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