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Articles by Hui Li
Total Records ( 23 ) for Hui Li
  Jianwei Tian , Shouzhi Wang , Qigui Wang , Li Leng , Xiaoxiang Hu and Hui Li
  Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα) is a major rate-limiting enzyme in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. It can catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA that plays a key role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of ACCα gene polymorphisms with chicken growth and body composition traits. The Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content and the Northeast Agricultural University F2 Resource Population were used in the current study. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in the aforementioned two populations. A synonymous mutation was detected in the exon 19 region of ACCα gene, then polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was developed to genotype all the individuals derived from the aforementioned populations. Association analysis revealed that the polymorphism was associated with abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat in the two populations. The results suggested that ACCα gene could be a candidate locus or linked to a major gene that affects abdominal fat content in the chicken.
  Stephanie T. Shi , Koleen J. Herlihy , Joanne P. Graham , Shella A. Fuhrman , Chau Doan , Hans Parge , Michael Hickey , Jingjin Gao , Xiu Yu , Fannie Chau , Javier Gonzalez , Hui Li , Cristina Lewis , Amy K. Patick and Rohit Duggal
  A novel class of nonnucleoside hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase inhibitors characterized by a dihydropyrone core was identified by high-throughput screening. Crystallographic studies of these compounds in complex with the polymerase identified an allosteric binding site close to the junction of the thumb and finger domains, approximately 30 Å away from the catalytic center. AG-021541, a representative compound from this series, displayed measurable in vitro antiviral activity against the HCV genotype 1b subgenomic replicon with a mean 50% effective concentration of 2.9 µM. To identify mutations conferring in vitro resistance to AG-021541, resistance selection was carried out using HCV replicon cells either by serial passages in increasing concentrations of AG-021541 or by direct colony formation at fixed concentrations of the compound. We identified several amino acid substitutions in the AG-021541-binding region of the polymerase, including M423(T/V/I), M426T, I482(S/T), and V494A, with M423T as the predominant change observed. These mutants conferred various levels of resistance to AG-021541 and structurally related compounds but remained sensitive to interferon and HCV polymerase inhibitors known to interact with the active site or other allosteric sites of the protein. In addition, dihydropyrone polymerase inhibitors retained activity against replicons that contain signature resistance changes to other polymerase inhibitors, including S282T, C316N, M414T, and P495(S/L), indicating their potential to be used in combination therapies with these polymerase inhibitors. AG-021541-resistant replicon cell lines provide a valuable tool for mechanism-of-action studies of dihydropyrone polymerase inhibitors. The clinical relevance of in vitro resistance to HCV polymerase inhibitors remains to be investigated.
  Hui Li , Qian Chen , Markus Kaller , Wolfgang Nellen , Ralph Graf and Arturo De Lozanne
  Aurora kinases are highly conserved proteins with important roles in mitosis. Metazoans contain two kinases, Aurora A and B, which contribute distinct functions at the spindle poles and the equatorial region respectively. It is not currently known whether the specialized functions of the two kinases arose after their duplication in animal cells or were already present in their ancestral kinase. We show that Dictyostelium discoideum contains a single Aurora kinase, DdAurora, that displays characteristics of both Aurora A and B. Like Aurora A, DdAurora has an extended N-terminal domain with an A-box sequence and localizes at the spindle poles during early mitosis. Like Aurora B, DdAurora binds to its partner DdINCENP and localizes on centromeres at metaphase, the central spindle during anaphase, and the cleavage furrow at the end of cytokinesis. DdAurora also has several unusual properties. DdAurora remains associated with centromeres in anaphase, and this association does not require an interaction with DdINCENP. DdAurora then localizes at the cleavage furrow, but only at the end of cytokinesis. This localization is dependent on DdINCENP and the motor proteins Kif12 and myosin II. Thus, DdAurora may represent the ancestral kinase that gave rise to the different Aurora kinases in animals and also those in other organisms.
  Mosbeh R. Kaloop and Hui Li
  This study investigates the possibility of using Wden Matlab function and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) method for bridge tower movement analysis. GPS and accelerometer techniques were used to collect the lateral displacements, acceleration and torsion displacements data of a Yonghe bridge tower. The analysis of test results indicate that the: (1) noise of GPS signals is high (2) signals accuracy obtained from the wden function increased by 20%; (3) traffic loads are the main factor affects the tower movement; (4) power spectral density is a good parameter to detect the tower movements and (5) GPS can be used as a trustworthy tool for characterizing the dynamic behavior of the low frequency bridges.
  Hao Luo , Fa-Xin Yu , Hui Li and Zheng-Liang Huang
  This study proposes a novel simple scheme for color image encryption. The RGB color components of the input image are permuted and transformed into the YCbCr color space. Then three simultaneous equations are constructed for secret sharing of the luminance and two chrominance components. After several iterations, the output of this equation set is the encrypted content. These encrypted channels are recomposed to the encrypted image. In image decryption, we merely need to solve the simultaneous equation set based on Largrange’s interpolation with several inverse iterations. The decrypted image is of very high quality for only slight degradation is introduced due to the color space mapping. Security of our scheme is well preserved as long as the permutation key kept secret. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
  Hui Li , Fa-Xin Yu , Xiao-lin Zhou and Hao Luo
  In delay tolerant mobile networks, there are always no end-to-end paths due to sparse nodes and their irregular movement, so the forwarding of messages from source nodes to the destinations is a crucial task, which results in low probability of successful messages delivery and buffer occupancy for a long time. Routing in these networks is affected by some metrics, but the number of new connections especially is the crucial factor in delivering messages. Under this detection, we proposed every connection routing, which pay more attention to new connections between nodes but not the older ones. Further together with countdown timer and a fast buffer-released mechanism, every connection routing, are influenced by nodes’ speed, communication range and number, expiration time and simulation area. Buffer-release-enhanced weighted every connection routing may only increase processing time by the introducing of messages releasing time, but the benefit is lighter loaded buffers and higher efficiency of networks. The performance of buffer-release-enhanced weighted every connection routing is able to guarantees the validity of message delivery and improve the efficiency of the networks.
  Chun-Ning Yang , Long-Hua Ma , Ya-Zhou Yue and Hui Li
  In this study, a general scheme for implementation of attitude and velocity algorithm in Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) under real-time environment was presented. This real-time implementation scheme was formulated in a recursive form using two time-rate executions and utilized integer arithmetic only. The coding of the attitude and velocity algorithm was conducted by a navigation computer (such as DSP or FPGA). It is shown that the general real-time implementation of strapdown attitude and velocity algorithm can be used in strapdown inertial navigation system for any combinations of gyro incremental angle sample of mth minor interval and (m-1)th minor interval.
  Long-Hua Ma , Yu Zhang , Chun-Ning Yang and Hui Li
  For signal processing and process control, the minimax problem is a crucial point in research subjects. But efficient solutions to equality and inequality constrained nonlinear general minimax problems are relatively scarce. A minimax neural network model was proposed to solve the general minimax problem based on penalty function. In this model, the unique requirement is that the objective function and constraint functions should be first-order differentiable. In addition to the global stability analysis based on the Lyapunov function, the proposed model was simulated and its validity was evaluated with numerical results. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed minimax neural network model can solve the problem in seconds which is more efficient than the conventional genetic algorithm and simplex genetic algorithms.
  Long-Hua Ma , Yu Zhang , Zhe-Ming Lu and Hui Li
  Particle degradation, as a main limitation of particle filter, can be resolved by making use of common re-sampling method, but it always bring about the problem of sample dilution. The Immune Particle Swarm Optimization (IMPSO) was introduced into particle filter and a new kind of particle filter named IMPSO-based particle filter was proposed. In the IMPSO-based particle filter algorithm, particles are driven to the area with a higher posterior probability density and maintain big particle diversity at the same time. Simulation results show that IMPSO-based particle filter can eliminates the degeneracy phenomenon, avoid the sample dilution problem and guarantee the effectiveness.
  Long-Hua Ma , Kai-Li Wang and Hui Li
  Land combat vehicles are inevitably subject to the vibration disturbance by wind gust or engine idling, etc. in the stationary initial alignment process of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS). Obviously, it’s necessary to consider the impact of vibration disturbance during the alignment process to achieve better performance. In order to guarantee the alignment accuracy on the rocking base and shorten the convergence time of alignment, a gyrocompass alignment method of SINS based on Kalman filter pretreatment and dynamic gain adjustment was proposed. The output of gyros and accelerometers was firstly pre-filtered by Kalman filter to remove the impact of high-frequency small-amplitude rocking interference. The low-frequency large-amplitude rocking interference on vehicle was tracked through dynamic gain adjustment of gyrocompass alignment. The vehicle test of a ring laser SINS showed that the new gyrocompass alignment method can suppress high-frequency disturbances when the vehicle underwent low-frequency large-amplitude rocking interference. And the alignment process can track the attitude change of vehicle caused by low-frequency large-amplitude rocking interference. Comparing with traditional gyrocompass alignment algorithm and Kalman filter alignment method, the performance of the new gyrocompass alignment method is much improved by filtering random noise caused by vibration disturbance of vehicle effectively.
  Mingji Zhou , Leina Shi and Hui Li
  The tradition electroplating power is large and the output ripple is big. The study presents a multi-waveform pulse electroplating power equipped with Samsung S3C2440. Changing the power pulse frequency, duty cycle and parameters of pulse current work, such as time, direction, size and so on, this completes the kinds of pulse waveform portfolio and average pulse current keeps unchanged. It achieved the long-distance communication and remote display. The design not only increases the life span of electronic components and reliability and enhances coating effects but also can be popularized in other kinds of plating.
  Yong Hang , Chen Zhang and Hui Li
  Evaluation of controlled airspace capacity based on the controllers’ workload is the most wildly used theoretical evaluation method of controlled airspace capacity currently in China. This method uses the aircraft sorties to be the only metric. It identifies some quantitative relationship between the metric of aircraft sorties and controllers’ workload. The method then figures out the controllers’ workload and evaluates the capacity value limited by the controllers’ workload ability in the controlled airspace according to the DORATASK method. But in actual operation, aircraft sorties is not the only Influencing factor of controllers’ workload. Therefore, a new evaluation method of controllers’ workload based on the metric of traffic complexity is proposed. This new method uses a group of multidimensional metric of air traffic complexity to research and solve the problem of evaluating the controllers’ workload, Instead of using a traditional single traffic measurement- aircraft sorties. The method is applied in the capacity evaluation project of control sector 02 in Shanghai. The evaluation results are recognized by the front-line ATC experts. Meanwhile they also verify the feasibility and correctness of the method applying to the airspace capacity evaluation.
  Xiaoyun Guo , Hui Li , Hua Zhang , Jinhu Su , Mingzhi Hu , Yan Sun , Xiyan He and Gongxiao Wang
  Background and Objective: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an invasive diagnosis and treatment technique. Elderly patients are prone to cardiovascular diseases and have poor tolerance to stimulation. This study aimed to assess the effects of butorphanol combined with propofol on ultrasonic bronchoscopy for the elderly. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 elderly patients undergoing painless ultrasonic bronchoscopy in our hospital from June, 2019 through June, 2020 were randomly assigned into Group I (propofol group, n = 60), Group II (sufentanil combined with propofol group, n = 60) and Group III (butorphanol combined with propofol group, n = 60). Hemodynamic indicators, anaesthesia, analgesia and sedative effects and adverse reactions were compared before and after anaesthesia. Results: Group III had significantly lower mean arterial pressure and heart rate at the time of bronchoscope entering the larynx and the end of bronchoscopy, lower propofol dose, shorter anaesthesia onset time, bronchoscopy duration and recovery time and lower ramsay score and incidence rate of adverse reactions than those of Groups I and II. The saturation of pulse oximetry in Group III at the time of bronchoscope entering the larynx and the end of bronchoscopy was significantly higher than those of Groups I and II (p<0.05). Conclusion: Butorphanol combined with propofol for induction can stabilize hemodynamic indicators, improve patient comfort and exert better anaesthesia, analgesia and sedation effects and fewer postoperative adverse reactions. Therefore, it is more suitable for ultrasonic bronchoscopy in the elderly.
  Hui Li and Ruihua Hu
  The inner water flow field in a hydrocyclone was simulated by the software of computational fluid dynamics-FLUENT, using RSM turbulent model. The air core, 3D velocity field distribution and pressure field distribution were simulated and contrasted with experimental results. The results indicated that the air core was through from the inlet to the outlet. The simulated 3D velocity field distribution was consistent with the results obtained by the experiments. The axial symmetry of pressure field distribution was quite good and the pressure gradient was very large. All these results tested the reliability of the method of numerical simulation and provided a reference for the further research of solid-liquid separation and the optimizing design of the hydrocyclone.
  Hui Li , Chun-Jie Cao and Liang Yuan
  Phase angle and amplitude of a phasor can be provided by method of Least Squares Error (LSE). The LSE adopted iteratively is able to track the frequency and amplitude of power system in steady states and in kinds of non-steady ones. Iterative LSE with resampling is analyzed in conditions of off-nominal input, nominal input with harmonics and decaying Direct Current (DC) offset and additive Gaussian white noise. In the circumstances of frequency and phase step changes, performance of resampling LSE is compared with traditional LSE. Resampling LSE has better performance than the traditional one in frequency tracking ability and can provide less mean square error.
  Elin S. Gray , Penny L. Moore , Frederic Bibollet-Ruche , Hui Li , Julie M. Decker , Tammy Meyers , George M. Shaw and Lynn Morris
  The broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4E10 recognizes a linear epitope in the C terminus of the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41. This epitope is particularly attractive for vaccine design because it is highly conserved among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains and neutralization escape in vivo has not been observed. Multiple env genes were cloned from an HIV-1 subtype C virus isolated from a 7-year-old perinatally infected child who had anti-MPER neutralizing antibodies. One clone (TM20.13) was resistant to 4E10 neutralization as a result of an F673L substitution in the MPER. Frequency analysis showed that F673L was present in 33% of the viral variants and in all cases was linked to the presence of an intact 2F5 epitope. Two other envelope clones were sensitive to 4E10 neutralization, but TM20.5 was 10-fold less sensitive than TM20.6. Substitutions at positions 674 and 677 within the MPER rendered TM20.5 more sensitive to 4E10 but had no effect on TM20.6. Using chimeric and mutant constructs of these two variants, we further demonstrated that the lentivirus lytic peptide-2 domain in the cytoplasmic tail affected the accessibility of the 4E10 epitope, as well as virus infectivity. Collectively, these genetic changes in the face of a neutralizing antibody response to the MPER strongly suggested immune escape from antibody responses targeting this region.
  Hui Li , Lisa V. Thomassen , Ayaz Majid , Brian J. McMahon , Dana Bruden , Susan McArdle , Nazneen Bano , Minjun Chung , Robert L. Carithers , James D. Perkins , Daniel G. Sullivan and David R. Gretch
  The frequency that multiple different subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) simultaneously infect a given individual is controversial. To address this question, heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA) of portions of the HCV core and envelope 1 region was optimized for sensitive and specific detection of mixtures of HCV genomes of different genotype or subtype. Using the standard HCV genotyping approach of 5`-untranslated region (UTR) analysis, 28 of 374 (7.5%) chronic hepatitis C research subjects were classified as having either multiple-subtype HCV infections (n = 21) or switching HCV subtypes over time (n = 7), the latter pattern implying viral superinfection. Upon retesting of specimens by HMA, 25 of 28 multiple-subtype results could not be reproduced. All three patients with positive results were injection drug users with potential multiple HCV exposures. To address the hypothesis of tissue sequestration of multiple-subtype HCV infections, liver (n = 22), peripheral blood mononuclear cell (n = 13), perihepatic lymph node (n = 16), and serum (n = 19) specimens from 23 subjects with end-stage hepatitis C were collected and analyzed by the HMA technique. Whereas 5`-UTR results implicated mixed-subtype HCV infections in 2 subjects, HMA testing revealed no evidence of a second HCV subtype in any tissue compartment (0 of 70 compartments [0%]) or within any given subject (0 of 23 subjects [0%]). In summary, a large proportion of mixed-genotype and switching-genotype patterns generated by 5`-UTR analysis were not reproducible using the HMA approach, emphasizing the need for additional study.
  Lin Ma , Wei-Xiang Chen , Hui Li and Zhu-De Xu
  MoS2 nanostructures with different morphologies, such as agaric-like, sphere-like and flower-like, were successfully synthesized via a facile ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal route. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). XRD patterns showed that the layered structures of the as-prepared MoS2 samples did not completely form, and after their annealing treatment at 800 °C for 2 h in the atmosphere of N2/H2, the MoS2 products had good crystallinities with well-stacked layered structures. The influences of the ionic liquid on the sizes and morphologies of the MoS2 nanostructures were discussed. It was found that the as-prepared MoS2 nanostructures were assembled by nanosheets and the ionic liquid played a crucial role on the formation of the MoS2 nanostructures in our experiment. A possible formation mechanism of the sphere-like MoS2 nanostructures was preliminarily presented.
  Padmaja Gade , Sanjit K. Roy , Hui Li , Shreeram C. Nallar and Dhananjaya V. Kalvakolanu
  Transcription factor C/EBP-β regulates a number of physiological responses. During an investigation of the growth-suppressive effects of interferons (IFNs), we noticed that cebpb–/– cells fail to undergo apoptosis upon gamma IFN (IFN-γ) treatment, compared to wild-type controls. To examine the basis for this response, we have performed gene expression profiling of isogenic wild-type and cebpb–/– bone marrow macrophages and identified a number of IFN-γ-regulated genes that are dependent on C/EBP-β for their expression. These genes are distinct from those regulated by the JAK-STAT pathways. Genes identified in this screen appear to participate in various cellular pathways. Thus, we identify a new pathway through which the IFNs exert their effects on cellular genes through C/EBP-β. One of these genes is death-associated protein kinase 1 (dapk1). DAPK1 is critical for regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and metastasis. Using site-directed mutagenesis, RNA interference, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that C/EBP-β binds to the promoter of dapk1 and is required for the regulation of dapk1. Both mouse dapk1 and human dapk1 exhibited similar dependences on C/EBP-β for their expression. The expression of the other members of the DAPK family occurred independently of C/EBP-β. Members of the C/EBP family of transcription factors other than C/EBP-β did not significantly affect dapk1 expression. We identified two elements in this promoter that respond to C/EBP-β. One of these is a consensus C/EBP-β-binding site that constitutively binds to C/EBP-β. The other element exhibits homology to the cyclic AMP response element/activating transcription factor binding sites. C/EBP-β binds to this site in an IFN-γ-dependent manner. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or mutation of an ERK1/2 site in the C/EBP-β protein suppressed the IFN-γ-induced response of this promoter. Together, our data show a critical role for C/EBP-β in a novel IFN-induced cell growth-suppressive pathway via DAPK1.
  Tanya R. Pereira , David A. Laird , Michael L. Thompson , Cliff T. Johnston , Brian J. Teppen , Hui Li and Stephen A. Boyd
  Understanding sorption mechanisms and processes is critical for predicting the fate of organic pollutants in soils and for development of effective remediation strategies for contaminated soils. A novel suspension x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to elucidate the influence of the size and swelling of K- and Ca-smectite quasicrystals in aqueous suspensions on adsorption of 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). X-ray diffraction patterns of randomly oriented smectite quasicrystals in aqueous suspensions were compared with diffraction patterns for air-dried and oven-dried oriented films of the same smectites. The XRD patterns reveal that the phenolate form of DNOC, which is predominant in solution with pH ≥ 4.4, is primarily adsorbed on external surfaces of K-smectite quasicrystals in aqueous suspensions and may enter the interlayers as a K-DNOC complex when K-smectite quasicrystals coalesce. In Ca-smectite suspensions with pH > 4.4, the phenolate form of DNOC is adsorbed only on external surfaces; however, DNOC may become entrapped between substacks within Ca-smectite quasicrystals as the smectite suspension dries to form an oriented film. The neutral form of DNOC (pH ≤ 4.4) was adsorbed in the interlayers of a low-charge-density Ca-smectite in aqueous suspension but not in the interlayers of the high-charge-density Ca-smectite, apparently due to steric restrictions. Clearly, XRD analysis is a valuable tool for gaining insight into interactions between smectites and organic molecules, but caution must be used in extrapolating data based on XRD patterns of air-dried and oven-dried smectite films to processes that may occur in aqueous smectite suspensions.
  Simone M. Charles , Brian J. Teppen , Hui Li and Stephen A. Boyd
  Efficacy of soil clay minerals for the sorption of nonionic organic compounds may be reduced by soil organic matter (SOM) association with clays. Previously, we quantified the fractional availability (fa) of soil clay surfaces for sorption of para-nitrocyanobenzene (p-NCB). Removal of SOM from a soil increased p-NCB sorption, demonstrating that SOM reduced the availability of clay surfaces for sorption of p-NCB. In this study, we extended our investigation of SOM–smectite interactions by measuring the availability of smectite surfaces in four soils to four nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) including p-NCB, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 1,4-dinitrobenzene (1,4-DNB), and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB). Increased NAC sorption was consistently observed after SOM was removed from whole soils, indicating that SOM blocks the availability of soil smectite surfaces to NACs. Estimates for the fa of smectite surfaces in the four soils ranged from 1 to 0.3. These fa values were strongly negatively correlated with the ratio of SOM/smectite contents. Also, fa values differed systematically with NAC probe molecules, with SOM blocking fewer clay mineral sites from more strongly sorbing NACs. This suggests that smectite surface availability in soils may be an operationally defined quantity whose value depends on the probe molecule. Values of fa approaching 1 for strongly sorbing NACs suggest displacement of SOM from smectite surfaces by the sorbed compound.
  Jinshu Wang , Hui Li , Hongli Li , Shu Yin and Tsugio Sato
  Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped SrTiO3 was prepared by high energy grinding of the mixture of SrTiO3 and thiourea. A new band gap in visible light region (522 nm) corresponding to 2.37 eV could be formed by the co-doping. The photocatalytic activity for nitrogen monoxide oxidation of SrTiO3 in visible light region especially in the long wavelength range (λ > 510 nm) could be improved greatly. Under the irradiation of light with wavelength larger than 510 nm, the photocatalytic activity of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped SrTiO3 was 10.9 times greater than that of pure SrTiO3. The high visible light photocatalytic activity of this substance may be due to the formation of a new band gap that enables to absorb visible light effectively.
  Hui Li , Padmaja Gade , Shreeram C. Nallar , Abhijit Raha , Sanjit K. Roy , Sreenivasu Karra , Janardan K. Reddy , Sekhar P. Reddy and Dhananjaya V. Kalvakolanu
  Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β is crucial for regulating transcription of genes involved in a number of diverse cellular processes, including those involved in some cytokine-induced responses. However, the mechanisms that contribute to its diverse transcriptional activity are not yet fully understood. To gain an understanding into its mechanisms of action, we took a proteomic approach and identified cellular proteins that associate with C/EBP-β in an interferon (IFN)-γ-dependent manner. Transcriptional mediator (Mediator) is a multisubunit protein complex that regulates signal-induced cellular gene transcription from enhancer-bound transcription factor(s). Here, we report that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator as a C/EBP-β-interacting protein. Using gene knock-out cells and mutational and RNA interference approaches, we show that Med1 is critical for IFN-induced expression of certain genes. Med1 associates with C/EBP-β through a domain located between amino acids 125 and 155 of its N terminus. We also show that the MAPK, ERK1/2, and an ERK phosphorylation site within regulatory domain 2, more specifically the Thr189 residue, of C/EBP-β are essential for it to bind to Med1. Last, an ERK-regulated site in Med1 protein is also essential for up-regulating IFN-induced transcription although not critical for binding to C/EBP-β.
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