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Articles by Hubert Kalbacher
Total Records ( 3 ) for Hubert Kalbacher
  Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich , Cora Weigert , Hubert Kalbacher , Anita M. Hennige , Stefan Z. Lutz , Hans-Ulrich Haring , Erwin D. Schleicher , Wolfgang Voelter and Rainer Lehmann
  The activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases contributes to the modulation of insulin signaling, and the PKC-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate Ser357 of rat IRS-1 as a novel PKC-δ-dependent phosphorylation site in skeletal muscle cells upon stimulation with insulin and phorbol ester using Ser(P)357 antibodies and active and kinase dead mutants of PKC-δ. Phosphorylation of this site was simulated using IRS-1 Glu357 and shown to reduce insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, to decrease activation of Akt, and to subsequently diminish phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3. When the phosphorylation was prevented by mutation of Ser357 to alanine, these effects of insulin were enhanced. When the adjacent Ser358, present in mouse and rat IRS-1, was mutated to alanine, which is homologous to the human sequence, the insulin-induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 or tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was not increased. Moreover, both active PKC-δ and phosphorylation of Ser357 were shown to be necessary for the attenuation of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of Ser357 could lead to increased association of PKC-δ to IRS-1 upon insulin stimulation, which was demonstrated with IRS-1 Glu357. Together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser357 mediates at least in part the adverse effects of PKC-δ activation on insulin action.
  Jochen Schwenk , Gerd Zolles , Nikolaos G. Kandias , Isabel Neubauer , Hubert Kalbacher , Manuel Covarrubias , Bernd Fakler and Detlef Bentrop
  Potassium channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) are EF-hand calcium-binding proteins of the recoverin/neuronal calcium sensor 1 family that co-assemble with the pore-forming Kv4 α-subunits and thus control surface trafficking of the voltage-gated potassium channels mediating the neuronal IA and cardiac Ito currents. Different from the other KChIPs, KChIP4a largely reduces surface expression of the Kv4 channel complexes. Using solution NMR we show that the unique N terminus of KChIP4a forms a 6-turn α-helix that is connected to the highly conserved core of the KChIP protein via a solvent-exposed linker. As identified by chemical shift changes, N-terminal α-helix and core domain of KChIP4a interact with each other through the same hydrophobic surface pocket that is involved in intermolecular interaction between the N-terminal helix of Kv4α and KChIP in Kv4-KChIP complexes. Electrophysiological recordings and biochemical interaction assays of complexes formed by wild-type and mutant Kv4α and KChIP4a proteins suggest that competition of these two helical domains for the surface groove is responsible for the reduced trafficking of Kv4-KChIP4a complexes to the plasma membrane. Surface expression of Kv4 complexes may thus be controlled by an auto-inhibitory domain in the KChIP subunit.
  Nicolas Lutzner and Hubert Kalbacher
  Cathepsin S (CatS) is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Because of the relatively broad substrate specificity of this family, a specific substrate for CatS is not yet known. Based on a detailed study of the CatS endopeptidase specificity, using six series of internally quenched fluorescent peptides, we were able to design a specific substrate for CatS. The peptide series was based on the sequence GRWHTVGLRWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, which shows only one single cleavage site between Gly and Leu and where every substrate position between P-3 and P-3` was substituted with up to 15 different amino acids. The endopeptidase specificity of CatS was mainly determined by the P-2, P-1`, and the P-3` substrate positions. Based on this result, systematically modified substrates were synthesized. Two of these modified substrates, Mca-GRWPPMGLPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2 and Mca-GRWHPMGAPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, did not react with the purified cysteine proteases cathepsin B (CatB) and cathepsin L (CatL). Using a specific CatS inhibitor, we could further show that these two peptides were not cleaved by endosomal fractions of antigen presenting cells (APCs), when CatS was inhibited and related cysteine proteases cathepsin B, H, L and X were still active. Although aspartic proteases like cathepsin E and cathepsin D were also present, our substrates were suitable to quantify cathepsin S activity specifically in APCs, including B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells without the use of any protease inhibitor. We find that CatS activity differs significantly not only between the three types of professional APCs but also between endosomal and lysosomal compartments.
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