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Articles by Hossein Nahrevanian
Total Records ( 3 ) for Hossein Nahrevanian
  Fatemeh Faezi , Hossein Nahrevanian , Mahin Farahmand , Mohammad Sayyah , Seyed Kazem Bidoki and Sara Nemati
  Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical regions. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations; Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form leading to a skin nodule. L-Arginine (L-Arg) is an important amino acid involved in many metabolic pathways in host macrophages (MΦs) including NO synthesis. The L-Arg pathway is relevant to leishmaniasis due to its role in regulating MΦ functions. Activated MΦs can produce leishmaniacidal molecules, such as Nitric Oxide (NO) and oxidative mediators to kill parasite. Different concentrations of L-Arg were used; their toxicities assessed in naïve Balb/c mice. The highest concentration with lowest toxicity was selected to apply in Leishmania major infected mice. Test group was injected with three types of L-Arg (oral, local, injection) and control group received normal saline. Then, the lesion size, the measurement of amastigotes proliferation in MΦ, the pathophysiology of mice (hepato/spelenomegaly, survival rate, body weight) was all evaluated. In addition, plasma and tissue suspensions were investigated for NO induction using Griess Micro Assay (GMA). This is the first application of oral, local and injection forms of L-Arg against Iranian strain L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER. Results indicated L-Arg had ability to elevate NO in murine host. No pathological effects were observed in oral, local and injection types of L-Arg. Moreover, a significant decrease in parasite proliferation was observed only in oral group which presented anti-leishmanial activity by reduction liver and spleen positive smears. In injection form, percentage of positive smears was reduced only in spleen; a reduction observed in lesion sizes after treatment with oral and injection form of L-Arg; no significant alteration of local L-Arg to limit lesion size in CL was indicated here. The L-Arg is NO precursor and has been used safely for decades to treat physiological condition and used as food supplementary with no toxicity. In this study, L-Arg presented its partial ability to induce NO and treat animals. It also has limited potential therapeutic effects against CL by alteration of NO in host; therefore, it may be indicated solo as an anti-leishmanial agent or in a combination therapy for CL in mice. This may be the first immunotherapy trial against CL in Iran.
  Mehrnoush Modaresinejad , Hossein Nahrevanian and Shohreh Khatami
  Malaria is a parasitic disease which is common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inducer and dexamethasone (DEX) as an inhibitor of the immune system are used in this study. The LPS and DEX effects on the level of nitric oxide (NO) of plasma, liver and spleen, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, survival rate and the degree of parasitaemia on malaria infected mice were investigated. In this study, 24 outbred mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals. Entire mice were infected by the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Two groups of mice were selected as controls, which were injected with intraperitoneal (ip) injection of normal saline. The two DEX and LPS groups of mice had received concentrations of 4 and 1 mg kg–1 treatment respectively by 8 times ip injection every other day. Their body weight, survival rates and parasitaemia were monitored during the study. Finally, mice were euthanized by terminal anesthesia and cardiac puncture and the entire liver and spleen were removed for hepatosplenomegaly. Plasma and liver/spleen suspensions were assessed for immunobiochemical alterations of NO levels. The results indicated an increase in hepatomegaly of test group compared to control mice. The LPS mice represented splenomegaly more than DEX one. Nitric oxide in plasma, liver and spleen in both DEX and LPS group was changed, however, the only significant difference was observed in the liver of LPS. It is concluded that LPS and DEX can be applied as a standard and medically approved inducer and inhibitor of the immune system respectively, for experimental immunomodulation studies in animal models. In this study, LPS induced and DEX reduced immune responses in mice during malaria infection by alterations and manipulation of immunobiochemical factors via NO pathway. This may lead to an immunotherapy trial of malaria by control the pathophysiology and degree of parasitaemia in mouse model.
  Abdolhossein Rustaiyan , Hossein Nahrevanian , Zahra Zamani , Mahboubeh Taherkhani and Aida Iravani
  Tehranolide which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa has similar functional group to Artemisinin. More attention has been paid to Artemisia annua L., for its anti-plasmodial properties. In the present study, we investigated the anti-malarial effects of Tehranolide against human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. The chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive strain (3D7) of P. falciparum was continuously cultured in PRMI medium with addition of HT serum Albumax, RBC of O+ blood group, 05% CO2 at 37°C. The anti-malarial activity was determined by using different concentrations including 10, 30, 50 mg mL-1 of Tehranolide were made in drug vehicle including distilled water, methanol, DMSO and applied for therapy. Percentage of parasitaemia was counted after 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment for each concentration. Results indicated no effects of low concentration of Tehranolide on parasitaemia, however the concentrations of 10, 30 and 50 mg mL-1 represented their anti-plasmodial activities. The cytotoxic effects of high concentration occurred by destroying both parasites and RBCs in culture medium. Inhibition concentration of 50% (IC50) on plasmodial survival was observed at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 after 48-72 h of treatment. It is concluded that, Tehranolide seems to be a promising drug exhibiting good anti-malarial effects in this human malaria P. falciparum model in vitro. However, more research is required before Tehranolide can be used for malaria treatment in human cases.
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