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Articles by Hongnan Kan
Total Records ( 2 ) for Hongnan Kan
  Chan-Hee Kim , Su-Jin Kim , Hongnan Kan , Hyun-Mi Kwon , Kyung-Baeg Roh , Rui Jiang , Yu Yang , Ji-Won Park , Hyeon-Hwa Lee , Nam-Chul Ha , Hee Jung Kang , Masaru Nonaka , Kenneth Soderhall and Bok Luel Lee
  The recognition of lysine-type peptidoglycans (PG) by the PG recognition complex has been suggested to cause activation of the serine protease cascade leading to the processing of Spätzle and subsequent activation of the Toll signaling pathway. So far, two serine proteases involved in the lysine-type PG Toll signaling pathway have been identified. One is a modular serine protease functioning as an initial enzyme to be recruited into the lysine-type PG recognition complex. The other is the Drosophila Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE), a terminal enzyme that converts Spätzle pro-protein to its processed form capable of binding to the Toll receptor. However, it remains unclear how the initial PG recognition signal is transferred to Spätzle resulting in Toll pathway activation. Also, the biochemical characteristics and mechanism of action of a serine protease linking the modular serine protease and SPE have not been investigated. Here, we purified and cloned a novel upstream serine protease of SPE that we named SAE, SPE-activating enzyme, from the hemolymph of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor larvae. This enzyme was activated by Tenebrio modular serine protease and in turn activated the Tenebrio SPE. The biochemical ordered functions of these three serine proteases were determined in vitro, suggesting that the activation of a three-step proteolytic cascade is necessary and sufficient for lysine-type PG recognition signaling. The processed Spätzle by this cascade induced antibacterial activity in vivo. These results demonstrate that the three-step proteolytic cascade linking the PG recognition complex and Spätzle processing is essential for the PG-dependent Toll signaling pathway.
  Hongnan Kan , Chan- Hee Kim , Hyun -Mi Kwon , Ji- Won Park , Kyung- Baeg Roh , Hanna Lee , Bum- Joon Park , Rong Zhang , Jinghai Zhang , Kenneth Soderhall and Bok Luel Lee
  The melanization reaction induced by activated phenoloxidase in arthropods must be tightly controlled because of excessive formation of quinones and excessive systemic melanization damage to the hosts. However, the molecular mechanism by which phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis is regulated in vivo is largely unknown. It is known that the Spätzle-processing enzyme is a key enzyme in the production of cleaved Spätzle from pro-Spätzle in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that the Tenebrio molitor Spätzle-processing enzyme converts both the 79-kDa Tenebrio prophenoloxidase and Tenebrio clip-domain SPH1 zymogen to an active melanization complex. This complex, consisting of the 76-kDa Tenebrio phenoloxidase and an active form of Tenebrio clip-domain SPH1, efficiently produces melanin on the surface of bacteria, and this activity has a strong bactericidal effect. Interestingly, we found the phenoloxidase-induced melanization reaction to be tightly regulated by Tenebrio prophenoloxidase, which functions as a competitive inhibitor of melanization complex formation. These results demonstrate that the Tenebrio Toll pathway and the melanization reaction share a common serine protease for the regulation of these two major innate immune responses.
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