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Articles by Hoda M. Soliman
Total Records ( 4 ) for Hoda M. Soliman
  Hoda M. Soliman , Mohamed A. El-Metwally , Maged Taher Elkahky and Wael E. Badawi
  Assessment the efficiency of fungal antagonists and chitosan as foliar application against cucumber grey mold was carried out in greenhouse condition. The evaluated antagonistic fungi were Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium roseum and Gliocladium vireins. Chitosan was tested at three concentrations 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. It was noticed that all treatments significantly reduced grey mold incidence in cucumber plants comparing with untreated plants. Among all tested antagonists, T. harzianum and T. viride better than others were in inhibiting disease incidence and improving plant defense against the pathogen. Chitosan treatments did not show antimicrobial activity against Botrytis cinerea isolates in vitro however, when it used as a foliar spray on greenhouse it showed a highly significant control level of grey mold disease. According to obtained results from the current study, it could be suggested that the application of antagonistic fungi and chitosan might be an easily applied, safely and cost effective alternative control method to chemical control of grey mold of cucumber.
  Hoda M. Soliman , G.M. Abdel-Fattah and E.A. Metwally
  Background: In Egypt, chocolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae Sard. and Botrytis sinerea Pers. is the most serious disease affecting bean. Trichoderma harzianum Rifai is one of the most potent bioagents used for the control of many plant pathogens. This biocontrol agent has not harmful effects on humans, wild life and other beneficial organisms, safe and effective biocontrol agent in both natural and controlled environments that doesn’t accumulate in the food chain. Materials and Methods: The antagonistic effect of T. harzianum against B. fabae was investigated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium using dual culture technique. Also the antifungal activity of T. harzianum metabolites was also tested on the linear growth of B. fabae using cellophane method. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to investigate the mycoparasitic nature of T. harzianum on B. fabae. Results: An overgrowth of T. harzianum on B. fabae was observed, indicating the antagonistic behavior of T. harzianum against B. fabae. A complete reduction in the linear growth of B. fabae was observed indicating the antifungal activity of T. harzianum metabolites. By using the slide culture method, light microscopy observations showed an evidence about the mycoparasitic nature of the tested isolate of T. harzianum on B. fabae. Scanning electron microscopic observations confirmed the mycoparasitic nature of T. harzianum on B. fabae. Conclusion: The above results confirmed the mycoparasitic and aggressive nature of T. harzianum on B. fabae.
  Hoda M. Soliman , Abdel-Dayem A. Sherief and Arafat B. EL- Tanash
  Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride are used for xylanase (EC production using some lignocellulosic substrates under Solid State Fermentation (SSF). The results indicate that Barley Bran (BB) is the most potential substrate for higher xylanase production compared with other used substrates. The influence of various culture conditions including; fermentation period, incubating temperature, initial pH, initial moisture level, nitrogen sources, mineral sources, inoculum size and different levels of barley bran were studied. Generally, A. niger is more active in xylanase production compared with T. viride when grown on 1.0 g barley bran with moisture levels of 1:3 (75%), at pH 5.5 and 35°C after 2.0 days incubation in absence of additive nitrogen source. Parametric optimization of xylanase yielded 11.1 and 6.9 fold increase on barely bran compared with rice straw as initial solid substrate by A. niger and T. viride, respectively.
  Hoda M. Soliman , Farkad H. Musa , Mohamed A. El-Metwally and Samia A. Haroun
  Background: Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt diseases in a wide variety of economically important crops. Control of plant diseases still relies mainly on the use of synthetic fungicides, but environmental and health concerns and the development of fungicide-resistant pathogens have stimulated the search for alternative control strategies. Materials and Methods: Fusarium oxysporum isolated from the roots of diseased mung bean plans collected from Aga district, Dahahlia, Egypt (F1) recorded the highest values of wilt disease incidence (50%) in the pathogenicity test. Results: Cytokinins at concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm and β-sitosterol at 10–1, 10–3, 10–5 and 10–7 M slightly reduced the linear growth of F. oxysporum on PDA solid medium. In the greenhouse experiment, the β-sitosterol at 10–5 M was the most effective treatment in reducing the incidence of wilt (11.38e) in mung bean plant infected with Fusarium oxysporum . The growth parameters of mung bean plants (root length, shoot length, root fresh and dry weight, shoot fresh and dry weight and No. of leaves per plant) were significantly increased at the treatments cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm and β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Similarly, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotonoids and total pigments) as well as the defense enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and catalase) activity and the content of total phenols were significantly increased by the same treatments. Also, the yield parameters (No. of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, No. of seeds per plant and weight of seeds per plant) were significantly increased in mung bean plants non-infected and infected with Fusarium oxysporum treated with cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm or β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Conclusion: It is evident from the above results that, the resistance of mung bean plant to the used pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyspurm) was more or less improved by priming the seeds in kinetin and β-sitosterol specially in response to 100 ppm kinetin and 10–5 M β-sitosterol, these plant growth regulators could be used, as safe compounds to improve the resistance of mung bean plant to fungal pathogens.
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