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Articles by Hazem Ramadan
Total Records ( 4 ) for Hazem Ramadan
  Hazem Ramadan , Byungjin Min , Amit K. Tiwari , Gopal Reddy , Abiodun Adesiyun , Arthur Hinton Jr. and Woubit Abdela
  This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of peels of pomegranate (Punica grana), orange (Citrus siensis) and lemon (Limona taris) against four foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a food spoilage bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens. Inhibition tests were conducted in vitro using the disc diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) assays with the Bioscreen Microbiology analyzer. The study also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the extracts in situ by determining CFU/ml of bacteria recovered from rinsates of chicken skin treated with the peel extracts and by examining the microflora of treated skin samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial activity of all extracts, except the pomegranate ethanol extract, were dependent on the concentration of extract that the bacteria were exposed to during the trials. Treating the inoculated chicken skin with 5 mg/ml of either the five extracts produced significant (p<0.01) reductions in CFU/ml of MRSA, L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens recovered and the MRSA findings were supported by SEM observations. The antimicrobial activity of peel extracts of pomegranate, orange and lemon indicates that these extracts may be used as sanitizers to reduce microbial contamination of some foods and processing.
  Hazem Ramadan , Charlene Jackson and Arthur Hinton Jr.
  Due to culturability requirements encountered by the conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp., rapid molecular techniques for its direct identification from clinical samples are useful. In this study, Campylobacter spp. DNA from human stool and chicken fecal samples were detected by flagellin gene (flaA) PCR. A total of 297 samples consisting of 163 adult human stools (102 from diarrheic patients and 61 from healthy persons) and 134 chicken feces were subjected to flaA PCR. Ten reference strains of Campylobacter spp. were included in this study as positive controls. Thirteen stool samples (7.98%) from the human fecal samples and 39 chicken fecal samples (29.1%) yielded the genus specific 1.7 Kb amplicon of Campylobacter spp. Eight (7.84%) diarrheic human stool specimens out of 102 samples and 5 (8.2%) apparently healthy human stool specimens out of 61 samples were positive by flaA PCR assay. All the Campyloacter reference strains examined giving the specific amplicon of 1.7 Kb. The existence of Campylobacter spp. DNA detected by flaA PCR in poultry and human samples taken from locations of Egypt highlights the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Egypt that uses flaA PCR as a rapid screening method for the direct detection of Campylobacter spp. from human and chicken feces.
  Marwa Halawa , Amgad Moawad , Ibrahim Eldesouky and Hazem Ramadan
  This study was conducted to determine the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile, β-lactamase encoding genes and class I integrons (intI) of Salmonella serovars in broiler flocks. A total of 100 diseased chickens (5 samples per bird; cloacal swab, liver, gall bladder, spleen and intestinal content) were randomly selected from different broiler farms at Dakahliya and Kafrelsheikh Governorates, Egypt, during the period from September through December 2013. Conventional isolation and serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping, PCR identification of β-lactamase encoding genes and intI were performed. The culturing and serotyping identified 23 (23%) Salmonella isolates from diseased birds that belonged to 13 serotypes. The predominant serovars distinguished in this study were Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Kentucky and S. Infantis that constituted 52.2% (12/23) of all isolates. By antimicrobial resistance testing, 87% (20/23) of isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to 5 or more antibiotics) mostly against vancomycin, oxacillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin and nalidixic acid. For 3rd generation cephalosporins, all the isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and only 5 (21.7%) isolates displayed resistance to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Using PCR, all isolates were negative for blaSHV, blaCTX, blaCMY and blaOXA, while only 5 isolates (21.7%) harbored blaTEM (1080 bp). Variable amplicons with intI cassettes were detected by PCR from only 4 isolates (17.4%). Our findings highlighted the zoonotic potential of Salmonella in broilers with a possibility of antimicrobial resistance gene transmission to humans. Continuous surveillance is required to minimize the risk of human exposure to antimicrobial resistance pathogens from food producing animals.
  Amal Awad , Hazem Ramadan , Sherif Nasr , Ahmed Ateya and Samar Atwa
  Background and Objective: Staphylococcus aureus is commonly associated with mastitis in dairy herds with potential public health implications. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of S. aureus in mastitic milk and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolated strains as well as the resistance and virulence associated genes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred quarter milk samples were collected from 3 dairy farms at Dakahliya (n = 2) and Damietta (n = 1) Governorates, Egypt from September to December 2016. Conventional culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays targeting nuc (thermonuclease) and coa (coagulase) genes were performed. Isolates were tested for its susceptibility against 14 antimicrobial agents using disk diffusion method. All the isolates were screened for the presence of β-lactamases (blaZ, mecA) and virulence associated (pvl and tst) genes by PCR. Results: The S. aureus was detected in 42% (84/200) of the total examined milk samples. Regarding the antibiogram results, S. aureus revealed a high resistance against ampicillin (95.2%) and penicillin (83.3%) and a lower resistance was observed against gentamicin (23.8%), amikacin (16.7%) and ciprofloxacin (14.3%). Multidrug resistances were detected in 83.3% of the isolated S. aureus. Of the 70 penicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates, blaZ gene was identified in 67 (95.7%) isolates. Fifty percent of S. aureus isolates harbored the specific amplicon of mecA gene. Markedly, all mecA positive strains displayed multidrug resistance and were also positive for blaZ gene. The virulence determinants pvl and tst were detected in 7.1 and 11.9% of the isolated S. aureus, respectively. Conclusion: Presence of multidrug resistant and toxin producing S. aureus in dairy farms pose a major risk to public health. Therefore, this study highlighted the importance of developing an efficient control program to inhibit the transmission of S. aureus, particularly multidrug resistant strains to humans.
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