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Articles by Hasanuddin Ishak
Total Records ( 2 ) for Hasanuddin Ishak
  Sukri Palutturi , Muhamad Sahiddin , Hasanuddin Ishak and Hamzah
  Background and Objective: The implementation of national health insurance in Indonesia is still very new and vulnerable to various problems. Investigating community motivation and learning towards national health insurance payments is vital for policy makers. This study aims to examine the community motivation and learning in the payment of contributions in Muna District, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data collection was conducted with in-depth interviews of 50 informants and 3 focus group discussions, consisting of participants who were in arrears on the payment of contributions, participants who routinely paid contributions, non-participant communities and local government. Results: The community conducting national health insurance registration is encouraged by the desire to relieve medical expenses in health facilities, family guarantees and some participants are not covered as beneficiaries. Participants are in arrears due to unpredictable family income, greater fees, other needs, busy activities, improved family health conditions and others. Participants who regularly pay due to family members still routinely perform health checks at health facilities, participants are satisfied with the health services. Participants have various experiences during treatment at health facilities, such as long queues at health facilities, referrals and no effective drugs. Conclusion: The motivation and learning of the community in the payment of contributions are made up of the economic condition of the family, the health condition and the experience of receiving health services at the health facility.
  Hasanuddin Ishak , Anwar Mallongi and Nurhidayah Aras
  Background and Objective: Insecticide resistance and environmental damage are impacts of the continuous application of synthetic larvicides; therefore, alternative larvicides are necessarily for Malaria vector control. The study aimed to analyze the effect of Carica papaya seed and leaf extracts on Anopheles sp. larval mortality. Materials and Methods: The study method involved a post-test only control group experimental design. Third and fourth instar larvae of a field strain of Anopheles sp. were collected from a paddy field habitat. Fresh C. papaya seeds and leaves were obtained from a garden located in the Tanete subdistrict. The C. papaya seeds and leaves were extracted with 70 % methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. A bioassay test was carried out in three different concentrations of each extract and a control. Larval mortality was observed during 12 h in three replicates. Further, a field trial on each extract as a larvicide was conducted in Anopheles sp. habitat in Tanete, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results: Phytochemical screening of the C. papaya seed extract revealed the presence of tannins and terpenoids. The C. papaya leaf extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids. The LC50 value of the C. papaya seed extract reached a 3.9% concentration and The LT50 value was 5 min (p<0.05). The LC50 value of the C. papaya leaf extract reached a 2.8% concentration and The LT50 value was 60 min (p>0.05). The LC50 value of the mixed C. papaya seed and leaf extract reached a 2.6% concentration and The LT50 value was 5 min (p>0.05). The field trial of the C. papaya extract showed that the seed and mixed seed and leaf extracts both demonstrated a 100% larval density reduction, whereas the leaf extract only showed a 91% reduction (Mulla’s formulae). Conclusion: The C. papaya seed extract had a significant effect on the Anopheles sp. larval mortality, whereas the other extracts (leaf and mixed seed and leaf extracts) had no significant effect. The C. papaya seed and mixed seed and leaf extracts were indicated as effective larvicid for Malaria vector control.
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