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Articles by Harold E. Bays
Total Records ( 9 ) for Harold E. Bays
  Harold E. Bays , Peter H. Jones , Syed M. Mohiuddin , Maureen T. Kelly , Hsiaoming Sun , Carolyn M. Setze , Susan M. Buttler , Darryl J. Sleep and James C. Stolzenbach
 

Background

Co-administration of a fibrate and statin is an effective treatment option for patients with multiple lipid abnormalities, yet adequate long-term safety and efficacy data are lacking.

Objective

To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of fenofibric acid combined with statins in adults with mixed dyslipidemia.

Methods

Three large, 12-week, phase three, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials evaluated fenofibric acid 135 mg combined with a low- or moderate-dose statin compared to fenofibric acid or statin monotherapy, and a subsequent 52-week open-label extension study evaluated fenofibric acid 135 mg combined with moderate-dose statin (rosuvastatin 20 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, or atorvastatin 40 mg). This prespecified analysis integrated results from these studies to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of combination therapy.

Results

Across the controlled studies and the extension study, 2201 patients received at least one dose of fenofibric acid + statin for a median duration of 364 days. The most common adverse events were headache, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and back pain, with the incidence of all adverse events being similar across all combination therapy treatment groups. Rhabdomyolysis or treatment-related death was not reported in any group. Combination therapy resulted in sustained improvements in multiple lipid parameters, including triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Conclusion

Long-term fenofibric acid + statin combination therapy was generally well tolerated and resulted in comprehensive and sustained improvements in multiple lipid parameters in adults with mixed dyslipidemia.

  Harold E. Bays , Arvind Shah , Jianxin Lin , Christine McCrary Sisk , John F. Paolini and Darbie Maccubbin
 

Objective

Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Niacin improves lipid abnormalities associated with MetS, but is underused, mainly because of flushing. Laropiprant (LRPT) reduces niacin-induced flushing and, in combination with extended-release niacin (ERN/LRPT), improves lipid levels.

Methods

In this post-hoc subgroup analysis of a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week study (n = 1613), we evaluated the efficacy and safety of ERN/LRPT in dyslipidemic patients with MetS. Dyslipidemic patients were randomized 3:2:1 to ERN/LRPT 1 g, ERN 1 g, or placebo. After 4 weeks, active treatment doses were doubled (2 tablets) for 20 weeks.

Results

Relative to placebo, ERN/LRPT significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to a similar degree in MetS and non-MetS cohorts. ERN/LRPT significantly (P < .001) lowered triglyceride levels versus placebo in patients with MetS and without MetS (−30.2% vs −22.2%, respectively). The between subgroup difference in triglyceride lowering was not significant. For all lipid parameters, ERN/LRPT and ERN produced similar magnitude changes. ERN/LRPT and ERN produced similar increases in median fasting blood glucose levels versus placebo in patients with MetS (2.0 and 4.0 mg/dL, respectively) and without MetS (4.0 mg/dL for both groups), consistent with a known effect of niacin.

Conclusion

In patients with MetS, ERN/LRPT improves multiple lipid parameters associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. ERN/LRPT numerically improved triglyceride levels more in patients with versus without MetS, which is likely related to greater baseline triglycerides in MetS patients.

  Kevin C. Maki , Harold E. Bays , Mary R. Dicklin , Susan L. Johnson and Mayadah Shabbout
 

Background

Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (POM3) reduce triglycerides (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

Objective

To examine the effects of POM3 plus atorvastatin versus placebo plus atorvastatin on lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes, apolipoprotein (Apo) CIII, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass in subjects with mixed dyslipidemia.

Methods

After a 4-week diet lead in, men and women with non-HDL-C >160 mg/dL and TG 250-599 mg/dL, while taking no lipid-altering drugs, received double-blind 4 g/d POM3 (n = 118) or placebo (n = 119) with open-label atorvastatin 10 mg/d for 8 weeks, followed by escalation to 20 mg/d atorvastatin for 4 weeks, then 40 mg/d atorvastatin for 4 weeks.

Results

Total low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) concentration decreased significantly from baseline, and the reductions did not differ between the POM3 and placebo groups (−659.7 vs −624.4 nmol/L, P = .181). With POM3, compared with placebo, small LDL-P concentration decreased (P = .026), large LDL-P concentration increased (P < .001), mean LDL-P size increased (P = .001), a larger fraction of subjects switched from LDL subclass pattern B to A, and Apo CIII and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels were reduced (P < .001). The incremental effects of POM3 were similar across atorvastatin doses for most variables.

Conclusion

This analysis supports the view that LDL-P concentration is not increased by POM3 plus atorvastatin, relative to atorvastatin monotherapy, and is associated with potentially favorable shifts in LDL-P subfractions, Apo CIII and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in mixed dyslipidemia.

  Harold E. Bays , Eliot A. Brinton , Joseph Triscari , Erluo Chen , Darbie Maccubbin , Alexandra MacLean , Kendra Gibson , Amy O. Johnson-Levonas and Yale B. Mitchel
  The degree of glycemic control may alter lipid levels, which might also alter treatment efficacy of lipid agents.
  Kevin C. Maki , Harold E. Bays and Mary R. Dicklin
  A severe elevation in triglycerides (TG; ≥500 mg/dL) increases the risk for pancreatitis. TG levels ≥200 mg/dL are associated with a greater risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, no outcomes trials exist to assess the efficacy of TG lowering for preventing pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Similarly, no completed prospective outcomes trial exists to support or refute a reduction in CHD risk resulting from lipid-altering therapy in patients specifically selected for the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. This review examines the available evidence for the use of statins, omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin in the management of hypertriglyceridemic patients. Results from CHD outcomes trials support statins as the first-line lipid-altering drug therapy to reduce CHD in hypercholesterolemic patients, and subgroup analyses suggest statins are efficacious in hypertriglyceridemic patients with fasting TG levels <500 mg/dL. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates are reasonable first drug options for patients with TG ≥500 mg/dL and often are used to lower TG levels with the objective of reducing pancreatitis risk, although a statin or niacin may also be reasonable options. Combination lipid drug therapy may be needed to achieve both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goals for CHD prevention in patients with elevated TG levels, particularly those with TG ≥500 mg/dL. Additional clinical outcomes data are needed to provide a more evidence-based rationale for clinical lipid management of hypertriglyceridemic patients.
  W. Virgil Brown , Harold E. Bays , Kevin C. Maki and Robert A. Wild
  Not available
  Harold E. Bays , Rene A. Braeckman , Christie M. Ballantyne , John J. Kastelein , James D. Otvos , William G. Stirtan and Paresh N. Soni
 

Background

Icosapent ethyl (IPE; formerly AMR101) is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester. In the MARINE study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of IPE in patients with very high triglycerides (TG; ≥500 mg/dL) and previously demonstrated significant reductions in TG levels with no significant increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.

Objectives

In this follow-up, exploratory analysis, we report the effects of IPE on lipoprotein particle concentration and size.

Methods

MARINE was a phase 3, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 12-week study. Hypertriglyceridemic patients (N = 229) were randomized to three treatment groups: IPE 4 g/day, IPE 2 g/day, or placebo. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Results

Compared with placebo, IPE 4 g/day significantly reduced median concentrations of large very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL; −27.9%; P = .0211), total LDL (−16.3%; P = .0006), small LDL (−25.6%; P < .0001), and total high-density lipoprotein (HDL; −7.4%; P = .0063) particles and reduced VLDL particle size (−8.6%; P = .0017). In this patient population with TG ≥500 mg/dL, IPE did not significantly change the overall sizes of LDL or HDL particles.

Conclusion

IPE 4 g/day significantly reduced large VLDL, total LDL, small LDL, and total HDL particle concentrations and VLDL particle size in patients with TG ≥500 mg/dL. Changes in VLDL particle concentration and size reflect the TG-lowering effects of eicosapentaenoic acid. The reduction in LDL particle concentration with IPE is novel among ω-3 therapies and is consistent with the previously reported reduction in apolipoprotein B and lack of LDL-C increase with IPE in patients with very high TG levels.

  Harold E. Bays , Peter P. Toth , Penny M. Kris-Etherton , Nicola Abate , Louis J. Aronne , W. Virgil Brown , J. Michael Gonzalez-Campoy , Steven R. Jones , Rekha Kumar , Ralph La Forge and Varman T. Samuel
  The term “fat” may refer to lipids as well as the cells and tissue that store lipid (ie, adipocytes and adipose tissue). “Lipid” is derived from “lipos,” which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat and is derived from “adipo,” referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, including triglycerides and free cholesterol. Adipocytes and adipose tissue are active from an endocrine and immune standpoint. Adipocyte hypertrophy and excessive adipose tissue accumulation can promote pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue effects (adiposopathy), resulting in abnormal levels of circulating lipids, with dyslipidemia being a major atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factor. It is therefore incumbent upon lipidologists to be among the most knowledgeable in the understanding of the relationship between excessive body fat and dyslipidemia. On September 16, 2012, the National Lipid Association held a Consensus Conference with the goal of better defining the effect of adiposity on lipoproteins, how the pathos of excessive body fat (adiposopathy) contributes to dyslipidemia, and how therapies such as appropriate nutrition, increased physical activity, weight-management drugs, and bariatric surgery might be expected to impact dyslipidemia. It is hoped that the information derived from these proceedings will promote a greater appreciation among clinicians of the impact of excess adiposity and its treatment on dyslipidemia and prompt more research on the effects of interventions for improving dyslipidemia and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.
  Terry A. Jacobson , Matthew K. Ito , Kevin C. Maki , Carl E. Orringer , Harold E. Bays , Peter H. Jones , James M. McKenney , Scott M. Grundy , Edward A. Gill , Robert A. Wild , Don P. Wilson and W. Virgil Brown
  Various organizations and agencies have issued recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia. Although many commonalities exist among them, material differences are present as well. The leadership of the National Lipid Association (NLA) convened an Expert Panel to develop a consensus set of recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia in clinical medicine. The current Executive Summary highlights the major conclusions in Part 1 of the recommendations report of the NLA Expert Panel and includes: (1) background and conceptual framework for formulation of the NLA Expert Panel recommendations; (2) screening and classification of lipoprotein lipid levels in adults; (3) targets for intervention in dyslipidemia management; (4) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment and treatment goals based on risk category; (5) atherogenic cholesterol-non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-as the primary targets of therapy; and (6) lifestyle and drug therapies intended to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with dyslipidemia.
 
 
 
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