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Articles by Hao Zhang
Total Records ( 8 ) for Hao Zhang
  Hao Zhang , Shenfeng Zhang , Jianchang Yang , Jianhua Zhang and Zhiqin Wang
  A major challenge in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China is to cope with a declining availability of fresh water without compromising grain yield and grain quality. This study was designed to determine if alternate wetting and moderate soil drying during grain filling could maintain grain yield and grain quality. Two rice cultivars, Zhendao 88 (japonica) and Shanyou 63 (indica), were field-grown at Yangzhou, China. Three irrigation treatments, alternate wetting and moderate soil drying (WMD, rewatered when soil water potential reached –25 kPa at 15–20 cm depth), alternate wetting and severe soil drying (WSD, rewatered when soil water potential reached –50 kPa), and conventional irrigation (CI, continuously flooded), were conducted from 6 d after heading to harvestable maturity. Root oxidation activity, the photosynthetic rate of the flag leaf, and activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in grains during the late grain-filling stage were significantly increased under WMD, whereas they were significantly reduced under WSD. The grain yield was increased by 9.3 to 9.5% under WMD, while it was reduced by 7.5 to 7.8% under WSD, when compared with that under CI. Water applied to WMD was 44% and to WSD was 25% of the amount applied to CI. The WMD significantly improved milling, appearance, and cooking qualities, while WSD decreased these qualities. We conclude that a moderate wetting drying regime during the grain-filling phase of rice holds great promise to both increase yield quantity and quality and also could save precious fresh water resources.
  Laurel A. Beckett , Danielle J. Harvey , Anthony Gamst , Michael Donohue , John Kornak , Hao Zhang and Julie H. Kuo
  Background: The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Phase 1 (ADNI-1) is a multisite prospective study designed to examine potential cerebrospinal fluid and imaging markers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their relationship to cognitive change. The objective of this study was to provide a global summary of the overall results and patterns of change observed in candidate markers and clinical measures over the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods: Change was summarized for 210 normal controls, 357 mild cognitive impairment, and 162 AD subjects, with baseline and at least one cognitive follow-up assessment. Repeated measures and survival models were used to assess baseline biomarker levels as predictors. Potential for improving clinical trials was assessed by comparison of precision of markers for capturing change in hypothetical trial designs. Results: The first 12 months of complete data on ADNI participants demonstrated the potential for substantial advances in characterizing trajectories of change in a range of biomarkers and clinical outcomes, examining their relationship and timing, and assessing the potential for improvements in clinical trial design. Reduced metabolism and greater brain atrophy in the mild cognitive impairment at baseline are associated with more rapid cognitive decline and a higher rate of conversion to AD. Use of biomarkers as study entry criteria or as outcomes could reduce the number of participants required for clinical trials. Conclusions: Analyses and comparisons of ADNI data strongly support the hypothesis that measurable change occurs in cerebrospinal fluid, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging well in advance of the actual diagnosis of AD.
  Yingjie Mei , Yaosheng Chen , Jiaqi Li , Ping Gao , Chong Wang , Hao Zhang , Fei Ling , Yanfang Li , Shuihua Xie , Shixin Li and Gongqiu Zhang
  Cathepsin D (CTSD), a major ubiquitously expressed aspartic protease, is not only involved in muscle protein degradation, but also related to some pathological processes. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA, genomic DNA sequence, expression profile and polymorphism of the porcine CTSD gene. The full-length cDNA of porcine CTSD gene and the predicted protein sequence shared high identities wih other mammalian orthologous. Northern-blot analysis and Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicated that the CTSD gene has one transcript of approximately 2.0 kb in normal tissues and was expressed ubiquitously in pigs, without significant differences in porcine heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, fat, triceps brachi, biceps femoris, and longissimus muscles. The porcine CTSD gene spans ∼ 9.0 kb including nine exons. All exon/intron boundaries adhere to the GT/AG rule. Altogether 35 nucleotide polymorphisms of CTSD gene were discovered between Duroc, Landrace, Erhualian, and Dahuabai pigs. These polymorphisms included three missense mutations, eight synonymous mutations, and 24 intronic substitutions, and most polymorphisms are located in the intron 4 and 5. Three polymorphisms were genotyped in Duroc, Landrace, Dahuabai, and Erhualian pigs by PCR-RFLP method, and significant differences of their genotype frequencies were observed between Chinese native breeds (Dahuabai and Erhualian) and western breeds (Duroc and Landrace).
  Dan Du , Chunjiang Zhao , Hao Zhang and Guocai Han
  Tibetan Horse lives in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of South-West China, the controversy on whether Tibetan Horse should be classified into Southwest Horse Type or not has existed in China for a long time as there are four other type horses in the country. In the study, the genetic diversity and structure of Tibetan Horse were investigated using 14 microsatellite markers and 153 animals belonging to three Tibetan Horse subpopulations in Xigaze, Qamdo and Nagqu, respectively and Mongolian Horse and Ningqiang Pony which served as reference groups to Tibetan Horse. The results showed that the mean Number of Allele (MNA) across the 14 loci in Tibetan Horse was 13.1 and the average observed heterozygosity (0.710) and PIC (0.752) were slightly higher than those (0.692 and 0.773, respectively) of Mongolian Horse. Although, there was abundant genetic variation, genetic differentiation between horse populations was low, with only 2.1% of the total genetic variance among populations. Qamdo, Xigaze and Mongolian Horse had close relationship and Nagqu is distinctly separated from the other two Tibetan Horse subpopulations and referenced breeds in the clusters. The results indicated the genetic relationship of Tibetan Horse were closer to Mongolian Horse rather than to Ningqiang Pony, a typical breed in Southwest Horse Type, which suggests that Tibetan Horse was a unique horse breed which could not be classified into Southwest Horse Type.
  Ying-Jie Wei , Yin-Xia Huang , Xiao-Ling Zhang , Jun Li , Jie Huang , Hao Zhang and Sheng-Shou Hu
  Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is reported to be in close association with developing and mature blood vessels, and involved in enhanced smooth muscle cell migration after injury. This study was designed to clarify the expression pattern of Apo D and the possibility of Apo D as a new marker in human end-stage heart failure. Individual RNA samples obtained from independent left ventricular tissue of six heart failure patients derived from cardiomyopathies of different aetiologies during cardiac transplantation and six non-failing control subjects were hybridized to the gene microarray containing, in total, 35 000 well-characterized Homo sapiens genes. Apo D was one of the highly expressed genes (3.3-fold upregulated) detected by microarray, which was further confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5.88-fold upregulated) in failing hearts compared with non-failing hearts. Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses also demonstrated the higher levels of Apo D protein in failing hearts. Importantly, we observed elevated levels of plasma Apo D in heart failure patients compared with non-failing control subjects. We demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that Apo D was highly expressed in the mRNA and protein levels in human failing hearts compared with non-failing hearts. Furthermore, our finding of elevated plasma Apo D levels in patients with heart failure provides clues that Apo D may act not only as a cardiac molecular marker but also as a circulating biomarker in patients with heart failure.
  Hao Zhang , Zhijing Liu and Haiyong Zhao
  This study presented a new classification method for single person’s motion, which is represented by Haar wavelet transform and classified by Hidden Markov Model. We tackle the challenge of detecting the feature points by Haar wavelet transform to improve classification accuracy. We extract binary silhouette and segment them by cycle after creating the background model. Then the low-level features are detected by Haar wavelet transform and principal vectors are determined by Principal Component Analysis. We utilize Hidden Markov Models to train and classify cycle sequences and demonstrate their usability. Compared with others, our approach is simple and effective in feature point detection, strength in scale-invariant and generalized in different motions. Therefore, the video surveillance based on our method is practicable in (but not limited to) many scenarios where the background is known.
  Hao Zhang , Yunlong Ding and Lan Du
  This study utilizes the China University Spin-offs Survey data to identify the influence process from institutional innovation and organizational learning to synergistic effect of organization. First, we found that following the procedural view, each one of these three elements can be divided into two parts. Then, we established structural equation modeling with the connections between these six subdivisions. Sec, by taking 270 university Spin-offs in China as samples, we verified the fit of the model through statistical data on the questionnaire survey. After that, we analyzed the relationship and influence path of the institutional innovation, organizational learning and synergistic effect. The results of empirical research show that institutional implementation process is positive correlation on both sides of synergistic effect and the intermediary role is obvious that external organizational learning played a regulatory role between institutional innovation synergistic effects.
  Rima Kossah , Consolate Nsabimana , Jianxin Zhao , Haiqin Chen , Fengwei Tian , Hao Zhang and Wei Chen
  In this article, two different sumac species, namely Syrian sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) were investigated in order to determine and compare the chemical compositions of their fruits. The proximate analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the two sumac species, with Chinese sumac exhibiting higher contents in ash, protein, fat and fiber. Gas Chromatography (GC) revealed that Chinese sumac contains higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than that of Syrian sumac, with oleic and linoleic acids being predominant. The amounts of potassium and calcium were found to be higher in the fruit of Syrian sumac than in that of Chinese sumac. However, both sumac fruits exhibited also appreciable quantities of magnesium, phosphorous, sodium and iron. Syrian sumac contained much more vitamins than that of Chinese sumac, which in contrast exhibited higher amounts of essential and non-essential amino acids than that of Syrian sumac. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) indicated that Syrian sumac contains higher concentrations of organic acids than Chinese sumac and malic acid is the most abundant. Results from this study suggested that both Syrian and Chinese sumac fruits are potential sources of food ingredients and/or additives.
 
 
 
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