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Articles by Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky
Total Records ( 4 ) for Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky
  Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky , Farouk K. El Baz and Gamal S. El-Baroty
  In the present study blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima were grown in batch culture at different nitrogen and NaCl concentrations, respectively. Both species were found to respond to nitrogen deficiency and high NaCl level by accumulation of large amounts of commercially important chemicals such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The higher carotenoids and α-tocopherol contents was obtained when Spirulina sp grown at low nitrogen level (51 ppm N), with values ranged from 19.82 to 24.1 mg g-1 and from 533.2 to 978.5 μg Kg-1 (dry weight, d.w.), respectively. Whilst, these values in cells grown in free nitrogen medium were ranged from 30.15 to 31.13 mg g-1 and from 960.4 to 1325.7 μg Kg-1 (d. w), respectively. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) elution patter of total caroteniods extracted from S. platensis and S maxima culture contained β-carotene (49.6 to 319.5 μg g-1), lutein (0.06 to17.21 μg g-1), astaxanthin (6.61 to 160.27 μg g-1), zeaxanthin (1.25 to 18.55 μg g-1) and cryptoxanthin (1.41 to 20.13 μg g-1). S. maxima accumulated a large amount of cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin than that found in S. platensis. The effect of Spirulina species extracts containing various carotenoid compounds and tocopherols on the viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EACC) were evaluated. All algae extracts at different concentration of 200 and 400 ppm significant reduced the cell viability ranged from 89.11 to 5.25%. These extracts did not induce any significant changes in DNA fragmentation of treated EACC compared with untreated cells. But lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) enzyme activities and glutathione level in treated EACC were significantly higher than that in untreated cells. These finding suggest that algae extracts may be reduce cell viability by other mechanism such as membrane lyases instead of apoptosis. Thus, Spirulina extract rich in carotenoids and tocopherols could be used as chemopreventive agents since they are relative non-toxic
  Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky , Y. M. Abo Daiya and Gamal S. El-Baroty
  The composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) were analyzed by GC/MS. The peppermint and pennyroyal oils were consisted mainly of ketonic compounds (54.9-71.7%), while basil oil was rich in phenolic compounds (60%). Pulegone (65.1%), estragole (55.5%) and menthane (21.1%) were identified as the dominant components in essential oils of pennyroyal, basil and peppermint, respectively. The efficacy of their essential oils to inhibition the peroxidation process caused by 7,12-dimethylbenzo(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female mice was evaluated by estimating some possible hepatic and renal antioxidant markers. Enhanced of the lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues of the mice treated with DMBA was accompanied by significant (P<0.05) increase in the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level when comparing with untreated mice (control group). However, their values were decreased in the liver with 1.16, 1.10, 1.23, 1.20 and 0.37 times respectively of the control. Administration of essential oils to DMBA-mice caused significantly (P<0.05) decreased in hepatic and renal malonaldhyde (MAD) levels and increased the levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione dependent enzyme (GST) as well as enhanced the levels of antioxidant defense enzyme. In the liver, the basil essential oil caused significant decrease of MAD level 79% of the control and increase the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT and POD levels was 1.7, 3.2, 2.86, 2.90 and 1.91 times respectively than that in the control group (G1).
  Farouk K. El-Baz , Ahmed M. Aboul-Enein , Gamal S. El-Baroty and Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky
  A total 14 vitamin algal extracts obtained from 7 strains (Dunaliella salina, Scenedasmus dimorphus (mutant), Chlorella (mutant), Scenedasmus dimorphus (normal), Chlorella (normal), Scenedasmus acutus (mutant) and Scenedasmus acutus (normal) grown under different environmental conditions, were tested for their ability to induce increased activity of the detoxifying enzyme system glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in several target tissues of female mice. In the normal algal extracts, increase of GST activity was ranged from 3 to 4.27, 1.99 to 2.77, 2.1 to 2.99 and 1.6 to 2.4 while the extracts obtained from the mutant algae, increase of GST activity was ranged from 4.29 to 6.79, 3.34 to 5.81, 3.64 to 4.37 and 2.31 to 3.19 times in the liver, small intestine, large intestine and lung, respectively as compared to control group. The vitamin extracts of D. salina were increased GST activity with 7.2, 6.21, 5.63 and 2.91 times than the control group in liver, small intestine, large intestine and lung tissues, respectively. Consequently, the vitamin extracts were evaluated to induce GST activity in different organs tissues of tumorous mice. The vitamin extracts of Dunaliella grown under stress conditions showed the most active extract that induced GST enzyme activity over all control groups including non-tumorous, tumorous (negative) and positive control groups (standard vitamins mixture). In liver, the GST activity was increased over the control groups by 8.12, 6.0 and 3.0, respectively. The data indicating that vitamin algal extracts were increase GST activity in tumorous tissues over than tumorous control group in all tissues examined suggested a correlation between the GST-induced ability in tumorous and inhibitory of tumorigeneses. Since, the ability to induce an increase in the detoxifying enzyme activity by natural compounds has been found to correlate with their activity in the inhibition of tumorigeneses. Therefore, algae extracts may be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent.
  Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky
  Two species of blue green algae Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima were grown in nutrient medium containing different nitrogen and salt levels. In both species increasing nitrogen levels led to increase in phycocyanin pigments from 12.08 to 22.3% and soluble protein content from 29.7 to 86.1 mg g -1. Also, Spirulina has great variety in composition of phycocyanin pigments ranging from C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from 1.65 to 4.02%, allophycocyanin (A-PC) from 2.53 to 6.11% and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from 5.75 to 12.35% as a results, of changing nitrogen contents and salt stress. Spirulina platensis at high nitrogen level gave highest percentage of total phycocyanin 9.94% and R-CP 5.75% was the predominate among phycocyanin pigments. The increasing in NaCl levels in nutrient medium led to production significant in phycocyanin contents and soluble protein in Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima cells. The composition of phycocyanin pigment was changed markedly as results of increasing in NaCl level. Both algal species grown under combined stress (nitrogen deficient and high NaCl level) produced higher amount of phycocyanin than control. The anti-carcinoma activity of Spirulina towered Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) was evaluated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation and enzymes assay. Phycocyanin significantly inhibited the growth of EACC in a dose-dependent manner. Phycocyanin did not induce DNA fragmentation in EACC, (no ladder of DNA fragments). However, glutathione (GST), the activity of glutathione S- transferase (GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased over the control level. These findings indicate that phycocyanin may be able to inhibit the growth of EACC by membrane destructor, which led to increase the leakage of cell constituent and increase LDH and GST enzyme activities. Therefore, algal phycocyanin may have antitumor activity and could be used as a chemoprventive agent.
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