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Articles by H.V. Annegowda
Total Records ( 4 ) for H.V. Annegowda
  H.V. Annegowda , C. Ween Nee , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The influence of acid and alkaline hydrolysis on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Polyphenolic content was determined using total phenolic, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. Four in vitro antioxidant assays such as DPPH, ABTS, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potency (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity assays were followed to determine the antioxidant potency of the extracts and the values were expressed as mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC)/g extract. The results of this study indicated that acid hydrolysed and alkaline hydrolysed extracts possess fewer amounts of polyphenolic constituents in comparison with non hydrolysed extract. Even the VCEAC values of non hydrolysed extract in antioxidant assays were significantly higher (p<0.05) than acid and alkaline hydrolysed extracts. Moreover, the UV-visible spectral study also showed the absence of some of the absorption peaks of polyphenolic constituents in acid and alkaline hydrolysed extracts and hence, it supported our in vitro results. A strong correlation was observed for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of these extracts ensuring the involvement of polyphenolic content for the antioxidant activity. However, the results of this study may not be generalised for all plants as different plants possess different phytoconstituents in varying quantities.
  H.V. Annegowda , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa (TCSE) leaves obtained by soxhlet extraction. The analgesic effects of TCSE extract was studied by formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick tests where as antioxidant activity was evaluated by ABTS radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. In formalin test, 80 mg kg-1 (p.o.) dose of TCSE extract inhibited both the phases (p<0.05) of animal’s nociception, but TCSE extracts (40 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited only late phase. TCSE extract (80 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the reaction time in hot plate test at the time interval of 60, 90 and 120 min. In contrast, both the doses of TCSE extracts did not show any analgesic effect in tail flick test, but morphine (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) shown significantly (p<0.05) higher analgesic effect at all time intervals. TCSE extracts showed moderate ABTS free radical scavenging activity compared to standard gallic acid and higher activity compared to BHT (88.07, 96.35 and 68.76% of inhibition, respectively) but shown less ability to chelate ferrous ion. It was concluded from our studies that TCSE extracts have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties as well as better radical scavenging ability.
  H.V. Annegowda , T.S. Gooi , S.H.H. Awang , N.A. Alias , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The multiple traditional uses with fewer scientific investigations about C. iners bark made imperative to further exploit this plant for the evaluation of its therapeutic value. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic, aqueous and alkaloid extracts prepared from C. iners bark was studied using both in vivo and spectrometric experimental models. Results of hot plate and tail flick studies show that all the screened extracts are devoid of central analgesic activity. However, promising findings regarding the peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was revealed from the formalin induced pain method with alkaloid extract possessing significant activity followed by ethanolic and aqueous extract. Moreover, the results of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was also confirmed the presence of higher amount polyphenolic content in ethanolic extract with significant antioxidant activity. The observed peripheral analgesic activity by ethanolic and aqueous extract might be due to the presence of higher amount polyphenolic present in them. Results of this study also supported the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of pain. Hence, it was concluded from the study that C. iners bark extract can be utilized as new source of peripheral analgesic in the treatment of pain.
  K.N. Purushotham , H.V. Annegowda , N.K. Sathish , B. Ramesh and S.M. Mansor
  Presence of polyphenolic content in various part of the plant exhibit wide pharmacological activities including antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoid and tannins) and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of flower, leaf, pod, bark and root obtained from Cassia auriculata. Ethanolic extracts of various parts of C. auriculata obtained by sonication extraction techniques are studied for their phenolic contents and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay as well as total antioxidant assays using UV visible spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant studied, bark showed significant content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins followed by the root, leaf, flower and pod. Even bark extract exhibited highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay followed by root, leaf, flower and pod with a value of 766.7, 679.3, 644.9, 572.5 and 474.7 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (mg VCEAC)/sample, respectively. In addition, mg VCEAC values obtained from the total antioxidant assay was in the increasing order of bark>root>leaf>flower>pod. Moreover, a strong correlation was also found between phenolic contents and antioxidant values indicating their influence in the found antioxidant activity, hence the bark extract can be employed as an ideal candidate for herbal based pharmaceutical product. Results of the present study also emphasize variation in the chemical composition as well as biological activity ensuring the importance of proper selection of particular part of the plant to evaluate their therapeutic potency.
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