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Articles by H.S. Nagaraja
Total Records ( 3 ) for H.S. Nagaraja
  Srikumar Chakravarthi , Choo Zhen Wei , H.S. Nagaraja , Wong Shew Fung , Mak Joon Wah and Shalini Sreekumar
  Candidiasis is a fungal infection which is prone to occur in people with immunosuppression due to debilitating diseases and nosocomial causes. While few studies have shown evidence of this disease co-existing with malignancy-induced immunosuppression disease, there never were any exclusive animal studies demonstrating this relationship, especially cerebral candidiasis with breast cancer. In fact, the exact causative mechanism of candidiasis is by and large still under much speculation. This study aims to demonstrate this relationship by observing the histopathological changes of the brain harvested from female Balb/c mice which were experimentally induced with breast cancer and inoculated with Candida. The mice were randomly assigned to 5 different groups (n = 12). The first group (Group 1) was injected with Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS), the second group (Group 2) with Candida, third group (Group 3) with breast cancer and the final two groups, fourth and fifth group (Group 4 and 5) having co-existence of candidiasis and breast cancer at 2 different doses of candidiasis respectively. Inoculation of mice with candidiasis was done by intravenous injection of Candida albicans via the tail vein after successful culturing methods. Induction of mice with breast cancer is via injection of 4T1 cancer cells at the right axillary mammary fatpad after effective culturing methods. The prepared slides with the brains were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E), Periodic Acidic Schiff (PAS) and Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) stains for histopathology analysis. Grading of primary tumour and identification of metastatic deposits were done. Scoring of inflammation and congestion in the brains was done. Statistical tests done to compare group 2 and 4 showed that group 4 exhibited a highly statistically significant increase in inflammation and congestion (p<0.01), especially in the cerebral areas. The median severity of candidiasis was also increased in group 4 as compared to group 2. In conclusion, based on the above evidences, cerebral candidiasis was significantly increased in mice with breast cancer.
  M. Niranjan , H.S. Nagaraja , B.K. Anupama , N. Bhagyalakshmi , R. Bhat and A. Prabha
  The aim of the study was to evaluate if prolonged supervised integrated exercise in male hypertensive patients reverses the deterioration of heart rate variability. Sixty six male hypertensive patients were divided into exercise (n = 30) and non-exercise groups (n = 36). Exercise group patients underwent a supervised integrated exercise program for one-year. Time domain analysis of heart rate variability was performed from electrocardiogram during deep breathing. Heart rate variability decreased significantly (p<0.001) in hypertensive patients. HRV increased significantly after six months (p<0.001) and 12 months (p<0.01) of integrated exercise training. There was a significant decrease in blood pressure (p<0.001) in exercised hypertensive patients after 12 months compared to non-exercised group. Heart rate variability was significantly decreased (p<0.001) than normotensives after one-year in the non-exercised hypertensive patients. Long term supervised integrated exercise increased deep breathing heart rate variability and decreased blood pressure in the hypertensive patients. This suggested that integrated exercise program was able to reverse the autonomic dysregulation seen in hypertensive patients.
  Srikumar Chakravarthi , H.S. Nagaraja , Choo Zhen Wei and Wong Shew Fung
  Candidiasis is a fungal infection which patients with solid malignancies are at high risk. While few studies have shown evidence of this disease co-existing with malignancy-induced immunosuppression disease, there never were any exclusive animal studies demonstrating this relationship, especially cardiac candidiasis with breast cancer. In fact, the exact causative mechanism of candidiasis is by and large still under much speculation. This study aims to demonstrate this relationship by observing the histopathological changes of the hearts harvested from female Balb/c mice which were experimentally induced with breast cancer and inoculated with candida. The mice were randomly assigned to 5 different groups (n = 12). The first group (group 1) was injected with Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS), the second group (group 2) with candida, third group (Group 3) with breast cancer and the final two groups, fourth and fifth group (Group 4 and 5) having co-existence of candidiasis and breast cancer at 2 different doses of candidiasis, respectively. Inoculation of mice with candidiasis was done by intravenous injection of Candida albicans via the tail vein after successful culturing methods. Induction of mice with breast cancer is via injection of 4T1 cancer cells at the right axillary mammary fatpad after effective culturing methods. The prepared slides with the livers were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E), Periodic Acidic Schiff (PAS) and Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) stains for histopathology analysis. Grading of primary tumour and identification of metastatic deposits were done. Scoring of inflammation and congestion in the liver was done. Statistical tests done to compare group 2 and 4 showed that group 4 exhibited a highly statistically significant increase in inflammation and congestion (p<0.01). The median severity of candidiasis was also increased in group 4 as compared to group 2. In conclusion, based on the above evidences, cardiac candidiasis was significantly increased in mice with breast cancer.
 
 
 
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