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Articles by H.M. Kazeem
Total Records ( 6 ) for H.M. Kazeem
  M.Y. Sugun , H.M. Kazeem , N.D.G. Ibrahim , N.M. Useh , L.B. Tekdek and I. Ajogi
  Blackleg is an economically important disease of cattle, sheep and other ruminants which is endemic in both developed and developing countries of the world. Toxins and neuraminidase produced by Clostridium chauvoei have been reported to play significant complimentary roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the pathological changes caused by exogenous toxins produced following the culture of C. chauvoei at 24 and 48 h respectively were investigated and it was observed that the 24 h toxin produced more severe pathological changes, compared to the 48 h toxin. Necrosis was observed in the tissues examined, both grossly and histopathologically and was attributed probably to impaired cellular (mitochondrial) respiration. It was concluded that, although toxins produced by C. chauvoei play an important role in the mechanisms of blackleg, the role of leukotrienes (C4, D4 and E4), cytokines (interleukin-1, IL-1; tumour necrosis factor- , TNF- ), platelet-activating factor, interferon, complement fragments (anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a), prostaglandins and neuraminidase in the pathogenesis of C. chauvoei infection in mice need to be thoroughly investigated.
  J.S. Dalis , H.M. Kazeem , A.A. Makinde and M.Y. Fatihu
  A study was undertaken to determine the distribution of lesions of dermatophilosis on the body of cattle, sheep and goats found around Zaria and Jos in Nigeria. One thousand nine hundred and twenty cattle, 1200 goats and 800 sheep were examined for skin lesions. Skin scab samples were collected from 211 cattle, 102 goats and 20 sheep that had dermatophilosis-like lesions and processed for bacteriology at the Diagnostic Microbiology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. One hundred and sixty seven (8.7%) cattle, 61 (5.1%) goats and 12 (1.5%) sheep were positive for Dermatophilus congolensis. Lesions of dermatophilosis were found to occur on any part of the body on cattle, sheep and goats. However, the dorsal distribution predominated in cattle (32%) whereas, lesions around the head region occurred most frequently in goats (78.9%) and sheep (50.0%). The need to study the distribution of lesions of dermatophilosis on domestic ruminants of the various ecological zones where the disease is prevalent is emphasized.
  H.M. Kazeem , D.F. Adene , L Sa’idu , P.A. Abdu , A.M. Wakawa , C.N. Kwanashie , P.H. Mamman , J. Adamu , M.Y. Fatihu and T. Joannis
  Avian Influenza (AI) strain H5N1 outbreak with very high mortality in 2 commercial poultry farms in Nigeria was subjected to further laboratory investigations to document all contributory etiological factors. Tissues from flocks on the farms located over 200 km apart were sampled for bacteriology. Haemolytic E. coli and an unidentified Gram variable rod were isolated from the first farm; Pasteurella haemolytica and haemolytic E. coli were isolated from the second farm. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed haemolytic E. coli was resistant to 6, partially to 3 and fully susceptible to Enrofloxacin (Tarivid®). Pasteurella haemolytica was resistant to 5 and susceptible to 3 antibiotics. The unidentified Gram variable pleomorph was sensitive to 10 antibiotics used. The isolation of haemolytic E. coli, in avian influenza outbreaks with high degree of antibiotic resistance is hereby documented.
  S.B. Oladele , A.J. Nok , P. Abdu , H.M. Kazeem and K.A.N. Esievo
  Experiments were performed to determine some properties of neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Kudu 113 strain, in order to deduce the possible effects of this enzyme on hosts cells during NDV infections in poultry; and to see how its properties are similar or different from neuraminidases of some viruses that have been previously characterized. The activity and properties of neuraminidase of NDV Kudu 113 strain were determined by periodate thiobarbituric acid assay method. Neuraminidase activity was detected in NDV Kudu 113 strain in vitro. The neuraminidase activity increased gradually from 24 h with the mean value of 101.4±2.8 µmol min 1 and attained its mean maximum activity of 167.2±5.4 µmol min 1 by 72 h post-inoculation into embryonated chicken’s eggs, after which the activity of the enzyme declined. The enzyme was precipitated at 55% by ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] saturation. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 5.5 and 40°C, respectively. The Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocity of reaction (Vmax) of this enzyme were 1.0×102 µmol L 1 and 3.03×10 4 µmol min 1, respectively. It was concluded that NDV Kudu 113 strain produced neuraminidase in vitro. The neuraminidase activity had a linear relationship with the dilution of the virus at higher serial dilutions. Neuraminidase of NDV Kudu 113 strain also cleaved sialic acid from fetuin (substrate) in vitro. It is likely that neuraminidase of this virus strain may cleave sialic acid from the surfaces of erythrocytes and other cells during in vivo NDV infections in poultry, thereby exposing the erythrocytes to destruction by reticulo-endothelial system.
  J.S. Dalis and H.M. Kazeem
  A 1½-year-old male West African dwarf goat with skin lesions typical of dermatophilosis was involved in this study. Lesions were distributed on the head, neck, back and legs. Skin scrapings were aseptically collected and processed for bacteriological and mycological examination using blood agar and Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA), respectively. Dermatophilus congolensis and Blastomyces dermatitides were isolated from the cultures. This study represents an important documentation of such a concurrent infection from a goat in Nigeria.
  S.J. Sambo , N.D.G. Ibrahim , H.M. Kazeem , S. Adamu , P.H. Mammam and M.N. Ali
  Thirty-five adults clinically healthy African giant rats captured around Zaria were purchased for examination between April to August, 2006. Each rat was euthanized with chloroform and postmortem examination was conducted on them. Subsequently, a liver specimen was obtained from each rat and fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. They were later processed, sectioned at 5 µm thickness, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) technique and the slides were examined using the light microscope (Olympus®). Photomicrographs were taken with the Deluxe® photomicroscope (x40 0bjective). Twenty-five (71.4%) of the rats had normal livers grossly, while 10 (28.6%) exhibited gross changes. There were whitish and grayish patchy areas of necrosis in 5 (14.3%), fatty change in 2 (5.7%) and slight congestion in 3 (8.6%) livers from the rats. Light microscopy revealed ova of Capillaria hepatica within the parenchyma of the livers from 2 (5.7%) of the rats which had hepatic necrosis grossly. The ova were predominantly immature, while few matured ones had the typical bipolar nature of ova of Capillaria sp. The preponderance of these ova distorted the parenchyma and compressed the hepatic cells in the affected areas. Mild fatty degeneration was observed in close association to the ova and elsewhere within unaffected portions of the hepatic parenchyma. The consumption of African giant rats may lead to human cases of capillariosis if not properly cooked or roasted.
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