Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by H.H. Azzaz
Total Records ( 16 ) for H.H. Azzaz
  H.H. Azzaz , A.M. Kholif , H.A. Murad , M.A. Hanfy and M.H. Abdel Gawad
  An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cellulases addition to banana wastes on dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) disappearances. Laboratory produced cellulase (Asperozym) and a commercial cellulolytic enzyme source (Bacillozym®) were added separately to banana wastes at 4 levels (0, 0.77, 1.54, 2.31 and 3.08 Unit/kg DM). Increasing the Asperozym levels up to 3.08 U kg-1 DM exhibited the highest (p<0.05) IVDMD and IVOMD, while Bacillozym® recorded the highest (p<0.05) IVDMD and IVOMD values at 1.54 U kg-1 DM compared with the untreated banana wastes (Control). Nine lactating Zaraibi goats (about 3 years old and weight on average 31±0.2 kg) after parturition were divided into three groups of three animals each, using 3x3 Latin square designs to evaluate the effect of Asperozym and Bacillozym® addition to diets on the productivity of lactating goats. Animals were fed on 50% Concentrate Feed Mixture (CFM), 25% banana wastes and 25% berseem (clover) straw (control diet). Control diet+ Asperozym at level of 3.08 U kg-1 DM (T1); control diet+Bacillozym® at level of 1.54 U kg-1 DM. (T2). Apparent digestibility for all nutrients were improved (p<0.05) by cellulases treatments. Milk and 4% Fat Corrected Milk (FCM) yields were higher (p<0.05) for T1 group followed by T2 group than control group while milk composition was not affected (p<0.05). Blood plasma Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glucose concentration were not affected by treatments. The addition of Asperozym and Bacillozym® to diets improved the performances of lactating Zaraibi goats with no deleterious effects on general health.
  H.A. Murad and H.H. Azzaz
  Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.
  H.A.Murad , Ebtesam Naeim Hosseany , Samy M. Abd Elhamid , Asmaa G. Abu-El Khair , H.H. Azzaz and Monera Omar Zahran
  Background and Objectives: Huge amounts of permeate produced from ultrafiltration of milk for cheese processing were wasted and represent a serious environmental pollution problem. Utilization of such permeates for production of added value products as yeast biomass or baker's yeast would be profitable from the economical and the environmental point of view. The aim of this work was to study the impact of permeate supplemented with nitrogen sources and some vitamins as well as some other supplements as Tween 80 and phosphorus sources on the biomass yield of baker's yeast. Materials and Methods: The fermentation process was carried out in shack cultures using 250 mL conical flasks at 150 rpm and 30°C for 48 h incubation period. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (organic and inorganic), biotin, pantothenic acid, m-inositol and Tween 80 were tested for their impact on the biomass yield of baker's yeast. Results: Peptone was the most suitable nitrogen source yielded 8.45 g followed by malt extract and soybean extract produced 8.30 and 8.25 g L1, respectively. Marked enhancing in biomass yield was exhibited when 0.1% of K2HPO4, 0.15 ppm of biotin, 2 ppm of pantothenic acid and concentration of 0.4 of m-inositol was supplemented to the growth medium. The low level of tween 80 had slightly positive effect on the yeast biomass production of baker's yeast. Conclusion: Enzymatically hydrolyzed permeate can be used successfully as substrate for production of baker's yeast.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.M. Ebeid , T.A. Morsy and S.M. Kholif
  This study was conducted to study the effect of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain P169 on nutrient digestibility coefficients, blood metabolites, milk yield and milk composition of mild lactating buffaloes. Fifteen lactating buffaloes, 2 months after parturition, were randomly assigned into three groups, 5 animals each, using complete random design. The experiment lasted for two months, buffaloes were fed dry matter according to 3% of their mean body weight. The experimental groups were fed on: (1) Control ration (consisted of 50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 30% corn silage, 10% dried sugar beet pulp and 10% rice straw), (2) Control ration+50 g Yeast Culture (YC)/head/day and (3) Control ration+50 g YC+4 g propionibacteria, P169, (YC+P169)/head/day. The supplementation of YC or YC+P169 improved (p<0.05) all nutrients digestibility but significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood plasma urea nitrogen of treated buffaloes. Milk and 4% fat corrected milk yields were significantly increased (p<0.05) while milk fatty acids were unaffected by YC or YC+P169 supplementation. In conclusion, ration’s supplementation with YC or YC+P169 had beneficial effects on the buffaloes productivity with no deleterious effects on animals health.
  Mostafa S.A. Khattab , H.H. Azzaz , Ahmed M. Abd El Tawab and Hussein A. Murad
  Background and Objective: Cellulases enzymes are widely be interested due to its capability to degrade lignocellulosic materials. The current study was concerning on investigating different factors of cellulase production from fungal sources by using agricultural wastes and studying its impacts on ruminal digestion and fermentation. Materials and Methods: The study tested the cellulase enzyme production ability of fungal strains against different lignocellulosic. Simultaneously the effect of different fungal strains to choose according to the superiority of cellulase production, then environmental factors were studied such as carbon source concentrations, inoculum size, incubation period, initial pH and nitrogen source. Finally, produced cellulase was evaluated using in vitro batch culture technique. Results: Penicillium chrysogenum recorded the highest value for cellulase activity. Pea pods showed best carbon source with 17.5% concentration for cellulase production. About 4% inoculum size, 2 days of incubation and pH5 were recorded the highest value for cellulase production. In vitro fermentation results showed improvement of DM digestibility compared with control. Conclusion: The current findings showed potential possibilities to utilize agricultural wastes as a substrate for producing cellulase enzyme from Penicillium chrysogenum fugal strain which could be an effective additive to improve ruminant diet digestion and utilization.
  Ahmed M. Abd El Tawab , H.A. Murad , Mostafa S.A. Khattab and H.H. Azzaz
  Background and Objectives: Enhancing poor quality roughages by biological treatments has interested for many researches in last years. So, in the current study was carried out to production of tannase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus and its impact on ruminal fermentation, degradability and gas production were evaluated through in vitro trials. Materials and Methods: Aspergillus terreus was grown as stand cultures in 100 mL conical flasks containing tannic acid powder medium. The maximum production of tannase by Aspergillus terreus was achieved at inoculum ratio of 4% (v/v), 72 h of incubation period, initial pH 5.0, urea as a nitrogen sources at a concentration of 0.33 g N L1 and pomegranate peel as a carbon source at a concentration of 10% (w/v). For animal feeding experiments in vitro dry matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance and rumen fermentation were determined for the experimental diets. The concentrate:roughages ratio was 50:50 on DM basis, experimental diets plus different levels of tannase enzyme being 0, 5250, 10500, 15750, 21000 and 26250 IU kg1 DM were studied. Results: Tannase enzyme increased DM, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets compared with the control diet (0.0 IU kg1 DM), which gave the lowest values of diet degradability parameters. The maximum produced tannase efficiency percentage for dry matter degradability was obtained at 15750 IU kg1 DM. Production of tannase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus strain under solid state fermentation was superior over tannase production from other fungal strains under the submerged cultures. Conclusion: In conclusion tannase enzyme had positive improving of feed digestion in the current in vitro study.
  H.H. Azzaz , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar , Noha A. Hassaan and H.A. Murad
  Background and Objectives: The search for cheap-safe tools for promoting farm animal productivity is the main concern of the animal nutritionists’ nowadays. The main objective of this study was to evaluate impact of cellulase new formula for promoting performance of lactating Baladi goats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen early lactating Baladi goats were randomly divided into 3 groups; the 1st group was fed control ration (50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 25% berseem (clover) hay and 25% wheat straw), the 2nd fed control ration+LAB produced cellulase at 42.16 IU kg1 DM (R1), while the 3rd fed control ration+42.16 IU kg1 DM of Pan-Zyme® (R2). The goats were fed dry matter according to 4% of their body weight for 9 weeks. Results: Goats fed cellulases supplemented rations (R1 and R2) showed higher (p<0.05) nutrients digestibility coefficients, milk yield and milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids yields than those of control. Cellulases supplementation did not cause any change in all of blood parameters (ex; glucose, protein AST, ALT and urea concentrations), milk fatty acids and amino acids profiles. Conclusion: Inclusion of the produced cellulase in lactating goat’s rations improved their ability for feed utilization and milk production with no bad effects on liver and kidney functions, which reflecting the safety and efficacy of the new cellulase product.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , Noha A. Hassaan and M. Fahmy
  Background and Objectives: Pectinase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a main tool for effective use of pectin rich agro-residues as alternative feed resources. Production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus on medium of sugar beet pulp to be used as a feed supplement for dairy animals was the main objective of this study. Materials and Methods: Impact of inoculum size ranged from 1-8% (v/v), incubation period from 1-7 days, initial pH of growth medium in a range between 3 and 8 and different nitrogen source ( ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride peptone, yeast extract and urea) on pectinase production was studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate impact of the resultant pectinase on orange peel degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial pectinases on dairy animal’s diets digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). Results: Pectinase maximum production by Aspergillus terreus was obtained at pH 4 of the growth medium, ammonium sulphate as a sole nitrogen source, 4 days of incubation period and 7% of the inoculum size. All addition levels of the produced pectinases increased dietary dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability, but the maximal level of degradability was obtained by produced pectinase at 600 IU kg1 DM reached 11.44% over the control. Conclusion: Utilization of pectin rich agro-residues with locally produced pectinase in dairy animal feeding, may help in overcome of the feed gap beside the good impact on economy and environment.
  H.A. Murad , Ebtesam Naeim Hosseany , Samy M. Abd Elhamid , Asmaa G. Abu-El Khair , Monera Omar Zahran and H.H. Azzaz
  Background and Objective: Dairy wastes are sources of environmental pollution and efficiently used for production of added value products is an important issue. The aim of this study was to use milk permeate for production of Saccharomyces cerevesia biomass, as baker's and feed yeast. Materials and Methods: The fermentation process was conducted with 250 mL conical flasks in shacked cultures using different volume ratios of culture medium with different agitation rates (150 or 200 rpm) for achieving the aeration test. The effect of incubation time on the production of yeast biomass was investigated. Applying the optimum parameters in lab scale fermenter (7.5 L) were carried out. The produced yeast biomass was used in enrichment of the feeding value of lactating animal’s diets containing agricultural wastes. Results: The optimum parameters for the production of yeast biomass were using 1:10 ratio of fermented medium to the entire volume of the fermentation vessel (250 mL conical flask) which yielded at agitation rate of 150 and 200 rpm and a yield reached at 8.22 and 8.84 g L1, respectively. The optimum incubation period was 72 h with yield reached at 9.12 g L1. High biomass yield was produced in lab scale fermenter reached to a maximum level of 116 g L1. When the produced yeast was added to dairy animal’s diets, the Dry Matter (DM), Natural Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability was increased, with no impact on ruminal total gas production and ammonia concentration. Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that yeast biomass produced on permeate hydrolysate give high yield and improves the degradability of dairy animal’s diet.
  H.H. Azzaz , Mohamed El-Sherbiny , H.A. Murad and H.M. Ebeid
  Pionibacteria are natural inhabitants of the rumen that make up 1.4% of ruminal microflora and produce propionate, a major precursor for glucose production by hepatic gluconeogenesis. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the mode of action of direct-fed bacteria in ruminants include stimulation of desirable microbial growth in the rumen, alteration of ruminal fermentation pattern and end product formation, increasing postruminal nutrient flow, increasing nutrient digestibility and alleviation of stress through enhanced immune response. Propionibacteria have the ability to convert lactic acid and glucose to acetic and propionic acids, reduce the risk of acidosis and increase weight gain and milk production of treated animals. On the other hand, enteric CH4 is the single largest contributing source of greenhouse gases production which causes global warming crisis. Propionibacteria also act to alter the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rumen and increasing the generation of health-promoting fatty acids such as Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). The impact of feeding of propionibacteria on the performance of the ruminant animals has been evaluated but results were inconsistent, this may be attributed to many of factors involved the used bacterial strain and its viability, bacterial inclusion level in the diet, diet composition and frequency of feeding, animal status including age, breed, health and physiological condition. In this review the focus will be on surveying impact of feeding propionibacteria on the productive performance of the ruminants including the effects on nutrients digestibility, rumen activity, blood parameters, milk yield and milk composition.
  M.S.A. Khattab , E.A. El-Bltagy , A.M. Abd El Tawab , O.H. Matloup , T.A. Morsy , H.H. Azzaz and M.M. Abdou
  Background and Objective: Utilization of date seeds (processed date by product) as a feedstuff in diets of farm animals are being in spotlight, this study were carried out to investigate the effect of feeding diets contain cracked date seed with or without fibrolytic enzyme, versus control diet using Egyptian buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Fifteen multiparous lactating Egyptian buffaloes (600±30 kg BW) were randomly assigned for 90 days in a completely randomized experimental design. Buffaloes were randomly assigned to 3 groups and fed a basal diet of concentrates, Egyptian clover and rice straw in a ratio of 50:30:20 DM basis (T1), the second group fed (T2) concentrate feed mixture, cracked date seed, Egyptian clover and rice straw as 35:15:30:20, respectively and the third group fed as T2 diet plus fibrolytic enzyme. Results: T2 groups had reduced feed intake (p>0.09) and DM, OM, NDF and ADF digestibility (p<0.05) than control (T1). While, T3 improved fiber digestion (NDF and ADF) compared with T2, with no differences with control (T1). Similarly, T2 resulted in lower (p<0.05) daily milk yield, energy corrected milk and milk efficiency (p<0.05) compared with T1, whilst, T3 improved the milk yield and ECM and milk efficiency compared with T2 (p<0.05) but without differences with T1 (p<0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that using cracked date seed with fibrolytic enzymes in lactating buffalo's diet improved feed conversation and productive performance with no negative effect on animal health.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.M. Kholif , T.A. Morsy , A.M. Mansour and H.M. El-Sayed
  Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of fibrolytic enzymes supplementation on in vitro degradation of sugar beet pulp and in vivo nutrients digestibility, milk yield and its composition by mild-lactating buffaloes. In the in vitro experiment, dry matter and organic matter disappearance (IVDMD and IVOMD) were determined for sugar beet pulp supplemented separately with laboratory produced fibrolytic enzymes (Asperozym) and commercial fibrolytic enzymes source (Tomoko®) at 3 levels (0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g kg-1 DM). Increasing the Asperozym and Tomoko® supplementation levels up to 2 g kg-1 DM exhibited the highest (p<0.05) values of IVDMD and IVOMD. In the in vivo experiment, fifteen mild-lactating buffaloes after 3 months of parturition were divided into three groups, five animals each, using complete random design. The first group was fed on 45% Concentrate Feed Mixture (CFM), 30% corn silage ,15% dried sugar beet pulp and 10% rice straw (control ration). The second group was fed control ration supplemented with Asperozym at 2 g kg-1 DM (R1), while the third group was fed control ration supplemented with Tomoko® at 2 g kg-1 DM. (R2). Asperozym and Tomoko® supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased DM, OM, CF, NFE, NDF digestibility for treated groups compared with the control group, while blood plasma parameter , milk yield and its composition did not significantly (p<0.05) change among all groups.
  H.H. Azzaz , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar , M.M. Abdo and H.A. Murad
  Background and Objectives: Supplementing diets of dairy animals with phytase and xylanase can enhance phosphorus availability and fiber degradation in the rumen and positively affect animal’s health and productivity. In vitro and in vivo trials have been conducted to define the optimal addition level of xylanase and phytase to lactating Baldi goat’s rations and investigate effects of these enzymes on animal’s nutrients digestibility, blood chemistry, milk production and milk composition. Materials and Methods: In vitro batch culture technique was used to evaluate the effect of phytase and xylanase supplementation at different levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 g kg1 DM) on rumen fermentation characteristics. Eighteen early lactating Baldi goats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed 4% dry matter according to their body weight. The first group was fed control ration (35% yellow corn, 20% corn stalks, 20% berseem hay, 12.5% soybean meal and 12.5% wheat bran), the second group fed control ration+Penizyme at 2 g kg1 DM (R1), while the third group fed control ration+Phtase-Plus® at 1 g kg1 DM (R2). Results: Xylanase and phytase supplementation increased the in vitro DM and OM degradability and ruminal NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations, with no effect on total gas production (TGP) volume. All nutrients digestibility (except CP), blood serum glucose concentration, milk production and milk components yields were increased for enzymes supplemented goats than control. Conclusion: Inclusion of xylanase and phytase in lactating goat’s rations improved their productive performance with no deleterious effects on their health.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar and M. Fahmy
  Background and Objective: Cellulase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a highly effective tool for agricultural waste treatments. Production of cellulase enzyme on medium of agricultural wastes by Fusarium graminearum to be used in ruminant feeding was the main objective of this study. Materials and Methods: Impact of initial pH of growth medium, different nitrogen sources and variety of agriculture by products as a carbon sources on cellulase production have been studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate the impact of the resultant cellulase on corn stover degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial cellulases on total mixed ration digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). Results: Cellulase maximum production by F. graminearum was obtained at 20% corn stover, initial pH of growth medium 5.0 and peptone as a nitrogen source. All addition levels of the produced cellulase increased dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets, but the maximum produced cellulase efficiency% for dry matter degradability was obtained at 1200 IU kg1 DM reached 23.19% over the control. Conclusion: Utilization of the produced cellulase in enrichment of the feeding value of the agricultural by-products may help in overcome of the feed gap with good impact on environment and public health.
  H.A. Murad and H.H. Azzaz
  Pectinases are widely distributed in higher plants and microorganisms. They are today one of the upcoming enzymes of the commercial sector. It has been estimated that microbial pectinases account for 25% of the global food enzymes sales. Microbial pectinases can be produced from bacteria including actinomycetes, yeast and fungi. Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungal species for industrial production of pectinolytic enzymes. Among industrial applications of pectinases are using these enzymes as an animal feed supplementation. This usage of pectinases for ruminant's feed production can reduces the feed viscosity, which increases absorption of nutrients, liberates nutrients, either by hydrolysis of non-biodegradable fibers or by liberating nutrients blocked by these fibers and reduces the amount of faeces. This study deals with types and classification of pectinolytic enzymes, their mode of action, production techniques and the methods of activity assay. Furthermore, it provides a bird’s eye view of the possible applications of these enzymes in ruminant nutrition.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.M. Kholif , M.A. Hanfy and M.H. Abdel Gawad
  Local isolated Fungal cultures including Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium avenaceum and Cephalosporium acremonium were employed for cellulase production. The current study aimed at optimization conditions of cellulase production from our local fungal strains. These fungi were grown as stand cultures in 1000 mL conical flasks containing cellulose powder medium for screening their ability for utilizing cellulose as main carbon source for cellulase production. A. niger was chosen on the basis of the best mean cellulase activity reached 0.076 U mL-1, for optimizing culture condition for cellulase production. Wheat straw was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 20% (w/v). The highest activity reached 0.097 U mL-1 was obtained under the optimum conditions of cellulase production including 4% inoculum size, 72 h incubation period, initial pH 6 of the growth medium with using meat extract as a sole nitrogen source at a concentration of 0.33 g L-1 . The result obtained indicated the possibility of cellulase production from A. niger local strain using wheat straw as a sole carbon source.
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility