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Articles by H.A. Murad
Total Records ( 17 ) for H.A. Murad
  H.H. Azzaz , A.M. Kholif , H.A. Murad , M.A. Hanfy and M.H. Abdel Gawad
  An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cellulases addition to banana wastes on dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) disappearances. Laboratory produced cellulase (Asperozym) and a commercial cellulolytic enzyme source (Bacillozym®) were added separately to banana wastes at 4 levels (0, 0.77, 1.54, 2.31 and 3.08 Unit/kg DM). Increasing the Asperozym levels up to 3.08 U kg-1 DM exhibited the highest (p<0.05) IVDMD and IVOMD, while Bacillozym® recorded the highest (p<0.05) IVDMD and IVOMD values at 1.54 U kg-1 DM compared with the untreated banana wastes (Control). Nine lactating Zaraibi goats (about 3 years old and weight on average 31±0.2 kg) after parturition were divided into three groups of three animals each, using 3x3 Latin square designs to evaluate the effect of Asperozym and Bacillozym® addition to diets on the productivity of lactating goats. Animals were fed on 50% Concentrate Feed Mixture (CFM), 25% banana wastes and 25% berseem (clover) straw (control diet). Control diet+ Asperozym at level of 3.08 U kg-1 DM (T1); control diet+Bacillozym® at level of 1.54 U kg-1 DM. (T2). Apparent digestibility for all nutrients were improved (p<0.05) by cellulases treatments. Milk and 4% Fat Corrected Milk (FCM) yields were higher (p<0.05) for T1 group followed by T2 group than control group while milk composition was not affected (p<0.05). Blood plasma Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glucose concentration were not affected by treatments. The addition of Asperozym and Bacillozym® to diets improved the performances of lactating Zaraibi goats with no deleterious effects on general health.
  H.A. Murad and H.H. Azzaz
  Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.
  H.A. Murad , A.M. Abd El Tawab , A.M. Kholif , S.A. Abo El-Nor , O.H. Matloup , M.M. Khorshed and H.M. El-Sayed
  Tannase production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated under solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation cultures. The optimum conditions for maximum enzyme production including deferent inoculum ratios, incubation periods, initial pH values, nitrogen and carbon sources were investigated. A. niger was grown as stand cultures in 250 mL conical flasks containing tannic acid powder medium. The maximum production of tannase by A. niger was achieved at inoculum ratio of 2% (v/v), 96 h of incubation period, initial pH 5.0, yeast extract as a nitrogen sources at a concentration of 0.33 g N L-1 and palm kernel powder (PKP) as a carbon source at a concentration of 25% (w/v). PKP was found to be the best carbon source supporting production of 931.27 U L-1 min-1 compared with 6.25 U L-1 min-1 for wheat straw.
  H.A. Murad , Sahar H. Mohamed and Asmaa G. Abu-El-Khair
  Background and Objective: Huge amount of whey and permeate are produced annually and can be used as substrate for production of valuable products. The purpose of this work was to employed hydrolyzed lactose of whey as a cheaper carbon source for reducing the cost of production of xanthan gum on submerged culture and solid agar medium. Methodology: Whey basal medium supplemented with different growth nutrient involved carbon, nitrogen (organic and inorganic) and amino acids and were used for xanthan production. Lactose of whey was acid hydrolyzed or partially hydrolyzed through preculturing process with Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 24-48 h before inoculating the production medium with Xanthomonas campesteris pv. campestris for xanthan production. Data were statistically analyzed by SAS software. Results: Acid hydrolyzed whey supplemented with 1% sucrose supported production of 28 g L–1 of xanthan gum. The precultured lactose mineral medium with Lactobacillus rhamnosus produced 17.6 g L–1 of xanthan on a medium precultured for 24 h. Diammonium phosphate was the best inorganic nitrogen source whilst peptone was the best organic nitrogen source supported production of 20 and 36 g L–1 of xanthan gum, respectively in submerged culture compared with 4.2 and 4 g L–1 of xanthan on solid agar medium, respectively. Cystein, alanine and histidine yielded a good yield of xanthan especially cystein which gave a yield reached 35 g L–1. The buffering system exhibited profound effect on xanthan yield which reached its maximal value at pH 7. Conclusion: The hydrolyzed lactose can be used successfully for production of xanthan gum with employing microbial biotechnology techniques including acid pretreatment of lactose medium and preculturing of production medium with lactic acid bacteria which contribute for reduction of pollution resultant from dairy waste disposal.
  A.M. Abd El Tawab , O.H. Matloup , A.M. Kholif , S.A.H. Abo El-Nor , H.A. Murad , H.M. El-Sayed and M.M. Khorshed
  Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of laboratory produced tannase enzyme (Tanozym) to diet including Palm Kernel Powder (PKP) on in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearance (IVDMD and IVOMD) and in vivo nutrients digestibility, nutritive values, milk production and composition by lactating Baladi goats. In vitro experiment, IVDMD and IVOMD, were determined for control diets (60% CFM and 40% Berseem hay); (T1) control diet plus different levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG), being 10, 15 and 20 g kg-1 DM and (T2) control diet plus different levels of Tanozym (3.9, 5.85 and 7.8 U kg-1 DM). The maximum IVDMD and IVOMD values were observed with 5.85 U kg-1 DM for Tanozym and 20 g kg-1 DM for PEG compared to control, however there was no significant (p<0.05) difference between 15 and 20 g kg-1 DM. The in vivo experiment was carried out on nine lactating Baladi goats after 7 days of parturition where animals were divided into three groups, three animals each, using 3x3 Latin square design. The first group fed control diet (60% CFM and 40% Berseem hay), the second group fed T1 (control diet plus 15 g kg-1, DM), the third group fed T2 (control diet plus 5.85 U kg-1, DM). Tanozym supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased nutrients digestibility, nutritive values, ruminal Total Volatile Fatty Acids (TVFA’s) but insignificant (p<0.05) increased ammonia nitrogen (NH3 N). Lower significant (p<0.05) values of rumen pH were recorded for treated groups compared with the control. Blood serum of animals fed Tanozym and PEG had higher values of total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipids, urea and glucose but lower values of AST and ALT compared with those of control. Daily milk yield, SNF, lactose and ash yield were significantly (p<0.05) increased with Tanozym compared control group. While, there are no significant (p>0.05) differences among groups for fat corrected milk 4%, total solids, fat and total protein yield.
  H.A. Murad , Sahar H. Mohamed , Asmaa G. Abu-El- Khair , E.A. Azab and Maha A. Khalil
  For improving the quality of the popular low fat Kariesh cheese it was manufactured from skimmed buffalo's milk supplemented with different concentrations ranged from 0.01-0.05% of xanthan gum as a fat replacer. The resultant cheese was microbiologically analyzed for Lactobacillus dlebreuckii ssp., L. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus on MRS agar and M17 agar, respectively at 37°C for 24 h. The total bacterial count was also determined at 37°C for 24 h. Chemical analysis was achieved for determination of fat, total nitrogen, ash and total solids as recommended by AOAC methods. The texture of the product was evaluated using the double compression test with addition of xanthan gum no alteration of microbial population was detected. The increase of cheese yield upon addition of 0.4 and 0.5% was not significant compared with the control. Textural characteristics including, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were increased for both the product and the control cheese up to 15 days storage period after that the hardness and cohesiveness were significantly decreased with increasing xanthan gum concentration. Kariesh cheese made with using 0.04 and 0.05% xanthan gum exhibited high acceptability compared with the control after 7 days of storage period. The addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer upon manufacturing of Kariesh cheese enriched its flavor and improved its quality.
  Ahmed M. Abd El Tawab , H.A. Murad , Mostafa S.A. Khattab and H.H. Azzaz
  Background and Objectives: Enhancing poor quality roughages by biological treatments has interested for many researches in last years. So, in the current study was carried out to production of tannase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus and its impact on ruminal fermentation, degradability and gas production were evaluated through in vitro trials. Materials and Methods: Aspergillus terreus was grown as stand cultures in 100 mL conical flasks containing tannic acid powder medium. The maximum production of tannase by Aspergillus terreus was achieved at inoculum ratio of 4% (v/v), 72 h of incubation period, initial pH 5.0, urea as a nitrogen sources at a concentration of 0.33 g N L1 and pomegranate peel as a carbon source at a concentration of 10% (w/v). For animal feeding experiments in vitro dry matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance and rumen fermentation were determined for the experimental diets. The concentrate:roughages ratio was 50:50 on DM basis, experimental diets plus different levels of tannase enzyme being 0, 5250, 10500, 15750, 21000 and 26250 IU kg1 DM were studied. Results: Tannase enzyme increased DM, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets compared with the control diet (0.0 IU kg1 DM), which gave the lowest values of diet degradability parameters. The maximum produced tannase efficiency percentage for dry matter degradability was obtained at 15750 IU kg1 DM. Production of tannase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus strain under solid state fermentation was superior over tannase production from other fungal strains under the submerged cultures. Conclusion: In conclusion tannase enzyme had positive improving of feed digestion in the current in vitro study.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , Noha A. Hassaan and M. Fahmy
  Background and Objectives: Pectinase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a main tool for effective use of pectin rich agro-residues as alternative feed resources. Production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus on medium of sugar beet pulp to be used as a feed supplement for dairy animals was the main objective of this study. Materials and Methods: Impact of inoculum size ranged from 1-8% (v/v), incubation period from 1-7 days, initial pH of growth medium in a range between 3 and 8 and different nitrogen source ( ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride peptone, yeast extract and urea) on pectinase production was studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate impact of the resultant pectinase on orange peel degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial pectinases on dairy animal’s diets digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). Results: Pectinase maximum production by Aspergillus terreus was obtained at pH 4 of the growth medium, ammonium sulphate as a sole nitrogen source, 4 days of incubation period and 7% of the inoculum size. All addition levels of the produced pectinases increased dietary dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability, but the maximal level of degradability was obtained by produced pectinase at 600 IU kg1 DM reached 11.44% over the control. Conclusion: Utilization of pectin rich agro-residues with locally produced pectinase in dairy animal feeding, may help in overcome of the feed gap beside the good impact on economy and environment.
  H.H. Azzaz , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar , Noha A. Hassaan and H.A. Murad
  Background and Objectives: The search for cheap-safe tools for promoting farm animal productivity is the main concern of the animal nutritionists’ nowadays. The main objective of this study was to evaluate impact of cellulase new formula for promoting performance of lactating Baladi goats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen early lactating Baladi goats were randomly divided into 3 groups; the 1st group was fed control ration (50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 25% berseem (clover) hay and 25% wheat straw), the 2nd fed control ration+LAB produced cellulase at 42.16 IU kg1 DM (R1), while the 3rd fed control ration+42.16 IU kg1 DM of Pan-Zyme® (R2). The goats were fed dry matter according to 4% of their body weight for 9 weeks. Results: Goats fed cellulases supplemented rations (R1 and R2) showed higher (p<0.05) nutrients digestibility coefficients, milk yield and milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids yields than those of control. Cellulases supplementation did not cause any change in all of blood parameters (ex; glucose, protein AST, ALT and urea concentrations), milk fatty acids and amino acids profiles. Conclusion: Inclusion of the produced cellulase in lactating goat’s rations improved their ability for feed utilization and milk production with no bad effects on liver and kidney functions, which reflecting the safety and efficacy of the new cellulase product.
  H.A. Murad , Ebtesam Naeim Hosseany , Samy M. Abd Elhamid , Asmaa G. Abu-El Khair , Monera Omar Zahran and H.H. Azzaz
  Background and Objective: Dairy wastes are sources of environmental pollution and efficiently used for production of added value products is an important issue. The aim of this study was to use milk permeate for production of Saccharomyces cerevesia biomass, as baker's and feed yeast. Materials and Methods: The fermentation process was conducted with 250 mL conical flasks in shacked cultures using different volume ratios of culture medium with different agitation rates (150 or 200 rpm) for achieving the aeration test. The effect of incubation time on the production of yeast biomass was investigated. Applying the optimum parameters in lab scale fermenter (7.5 L) were carried out. The produced yeast biomass was used in enrichment of the feeding value of lactating animal’s diets containing agricultural wastes. Results: The optimum parameters for the production of yeast biomass were using 1:10 ratio of fermented medium to the entire volume of the fermentation vessel (250 mL conical flask) which yielded at agitation rate of 150 and 200 rpm and a yield reached at 8.22 and 8.84 g L1, respectively. The optimum incubation period was 72 h with yield reached at 9.12 g L1. High biomass yield was produced in lab scale fermenter reached to a maximum level of 116 g L1. When the produced yeast was added to dairy animal’s diets, the Dry Matter (DM), Natural Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability was increased, with no impact on ruminal total gas production and ammonia concentration. Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that yeast biomass produced on permeate hydrolysate give high yield and improves the degradability of dairy animal’s diet.
  H.H. Azzaz , Mohamed El-Sherbiny , H.A. Murad and H.M. Ebeid
  Pionibacteria are natural inhabitants of the rumen that make up 1.4% of ruminal microflora and produce propionate, a major precursor for glucose production by hepatic gluconeogenesis. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the mode of action of direct-fed bacteria in ruminants include stimulation of desirable microbial growth in the rumen, alteration of ruminal fermentation pattern and end product formation, increasing postruminal nutrient flow, increasing nutrient digestibility and alleviation of stress through enhanced immune response. Propionibacteria have the ability to convert lactic acid and glucose to acetic and propionic acids, reduce the risk of acidosis and increase weight gain and milk production of treated animals. On the other hand, enteric CH4 is the single largest contributing source of greenhouse gases production which causes global warming crisis. Propionibacteria also act to alter the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rumen and increasing the generation of health-promoting fatty acids such as Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). The impact of feeding of propionibacteria on the performance of the ruminant animals has been evaluated but results were inconsistent, this may be attributed to many of factors involved the used bacterial strain and its viability, bacterial inclusion level in the diet, diet composition and frequency of feeding, animal status including age, breed, health and physiological condition. In this review the focus will be on surveying impact of feeding propionibacteria on the productive performance of the ruminants including the effects on nutrients digestibility, rumen activity, blood parameters, milk yield and milk composition.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.M. Kholif , T.A. Morsy , A.M. Mansour and H.M. El-Sayed
  Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of fibrolytic enzymes supplementation on in vitro degradation of sugar beet pulp and in vivo nutrients digestibility, milk yield and its composition by mild-lactating buffaloes. In the in vitro experiment, dry matter and organic matter disappearance (IVDMD and IVOMD) were determined for sugar beet pulp supplemented separately with laboratory produced fibrolytic enzymes (Asperozym) and commercial fibrolytic enzymes source (Tomoko®) at 3 levels (0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g kg-1 DM). Increasing the Asperozym and Tomoko® supplementation levels up to 2 g kg-1 DM exhibited the highest (p<0.05) values of IVDMD and IVOMD. In the in vivo experiment, fifteen mild-lactating buffaloes after 3 months of parturition were divided into three groups, five animals each, using complete random design. The first group was fed on 45% Concentrate Feed Mixture (CFM), 30% corn silage ,15% dried sugar beet pulp and 10% rice straw (control ration). The second group was fed control ration supplemented with Asperozym at 2 g kg-1 DM (R1), while the third group was fed control ration supplemented with Tomoko® at 2 g kg-1 DM. (R2). Asperozym and Tomoko® supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased DM, OM, CF, NFE, NDF digestibility for treated groups compared with the control group, while blood plasma parameter , milk yield and its composition did not significantly (p<0.05) change among all groups.
  Hossam H. Azzaz , Hend A. Aziz , Hoda Alzahar and H.A. Murad
  Background and Objective: Olive trees by products (OTB) as agro-waste not efficiently used and left it without treatment may cause serious economical, social and environmental problems. Biological treatments for such wastes can upgrade their nutritive values to be used as alternative feeds for ruminants. Investigate if their synergism between T. viride and S. cerevisiae and impact of each of them or their mixture on OTB digestibility and lactating Barki ewe's productivity are the main objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: Early lactating Barki ewes were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each using complete random design. Ewes were fed (4% of their body weight DM), 70% concentrate feed mixture (CFM)+30% untreated OTB (control group), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Trichoderma viride (R1), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (R2) and 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with T. viride+S. cerevisiae (R3). Results: No synergism was noted between T. viride and S. cerevisiae on the tested parameters. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids and NH3-N concentrations, microbial protein synthesis and total protozoa count were higher in treated groups than control. Biological treatments increased (p<0.05) all nutrients digestibility, fiber fractions digestibility, milk production and milk components yields. Blood serum globulin, urea, ALT and AST concentrations were not change among all ewes groups, while biologically treated ewes had higher (p<0.05) serum total protein and albumin than those of control. Conclusion: Inclusion of biologically treated olive tree by products (OTB) in lactating ewe’s rations improved their productive performance with no deleterious effects on the treated animal’s health.
  H.H. Azzaz , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar , M.M. Abdo and H.A. Murad
  Background and Objectives: Supplementing diets of dairy animals with phytase and xylanase can enhance phosphorus availability and fiber degradation in the rumen and positively affect animal’s health and productivity. In vitro and in vivo trials have been conducted to define the optimal addition level of xylanase and phytase to lactating Baldi goat’s rations and investigate effects of these enzymes on animal’s nutrients digestibility, blood chemistry, milk production and milk composition. Materials and Methods: In vitro batch culture technique was used to evaluate the effect of phytase and xylanase supplementation at different levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 g kg1 DM) on rumen fermentation characteristics. Eighteen early lactating Baldi goats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed 4% dry matter according to their body weight. The first group was fed control ration (35% yellow corn, 20% corn stalks, 20% berseem hay, 12.5% soybean meal and 12.5% wheat bran), the second group fed control ration+Penizyme at 2 g kg1 DM (R1), while the third group fed control ration+Phtase-Plus® at 1 g kg1 DM (R2). Results: Xylanase and phytase supplementation increased the in vitro DM and OM degradability and ruminal NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations, with no effect on total gas production (TGP) volume. All nutrients digestibility (except CP), blood serum glucose concentration, milk production and milk components yields were increased for enzymes supplemented goats than control. Conclusion: Inclusion of xylanase and phytase in lactating goat’s rations improved their productive performance with no deleterious effects on their health.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.A. Aboamer , Hoda Alzahar and M. Fahmy
  Background and Objective: Cellulase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a highly effective tool for agricultural waste treatments. Production of cellulase enzyme on medium of agricultural wastes by Fusarium graminearum to be used in ruminant feeding was the main objective of this study. Materials and Methods: Impact of initial pH of growth medium, different nitrogen sources and variety of agriculture by products as a carbon sources on cellulase production have been studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate the impact of the resultant cellulase on corn stover degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial cellulases on total mixed ration digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). Results: Cellulase maximum production by F. graminearum was obtained at 20% corn stover, initial pH of growth medium 5.0 and peptone as a nitrogen source. All addition levels of the produced cellulase increased dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets, but the maximum produced cellulase efficiency% for dry matter degradability was obtained at 1200 IU kg1 DM reached 23.19% over the control. Conclusion: Utilization of the produced cellulase in enrichment of the feeding value of the agricultural by-products may help in overcome of the feed gap with good impact on environment and public health.
  H.A. Murad and H.H. Azzaz
  Pectinases are widely distributed in higher plants and microorganisms. They are today one of the upcoming enzymes of the commercial sector. It has been estimated that microbial pectinases account for 25% of the global food enzymes sales. Microbial pectinases can be produced from bacteria including actinomycetes, yeast and fungi. Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungal species for industrial production of pectinolytic enzymes. Among industrial applications of pectinases are using these enzymes as an animal feed supplementation. This usage of pectinases for ruminant's feed production can reduces the feed viscosity, which increases absorption of nutrients, liberates nutrients, either by hydrolysis of non-biodegradable fibers or by liberating nutrients blocked by these fibers and reduces the amount of faeces. This study deals with types and classification of pectinolytic enzymes, their mode of action, production techniques and the methods of activity assay. Furthermore, it provides a bird’s eye view of the possible applications of these enzymes in ruminant nutrition.
  H.H. Azzaz , H.A. Murad , A.M. Kholif , M.A. Hanfy and M.H. Abdel Gawad
  Local isolated Fungal cultures including Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium avenaceum and Cephalosporium acremonium were employed for cellulase production. The current study aimed at optimization conditions of cellulase production from our local fungal strains. These fungi were grown as stand cultures in 1000 mL conical flasks containing cellulose powder medium for screening their ability for utilizing cellulose as main carbon source for cellulase production. A. niger was chosen on the basis of the best mean cellulase activity reached 0.076 U mL-1, for optimizing culture condition for cellulase production. Wheat straw was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 20% (w/v). The highest activity reached 0.097 U mL-1 was obtained under the optimum conditions of cellulase production including 4% inoculum size, 72 h incubation period, initial pH 6 of the growth medium with using meat extract as a sole nitrogen source at a concentration of 0.33 g L-1 . The result obtained indicated the possibility of cellulase production from A. niger local strain using wheat straw as a sole carbon source.
 
 
 
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