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Articles by H. Yaakub
Total Records ( 13 ) for H. Yaakub
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and M. Hilmi
  Problem statement: Supplementation of broiler diets with cristalline amino acids (i.e. lysine, ethionine and threonine) may support equal broiler growth and improve overall amino acids balance and enable a reduction in CP level of diets. Approach: A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental L-leucine in diets containing recommended levels and low crude protein (20 and 18%, respectively) with constant metabolizable energy (3200 kcal kg-1) for broilers from 21-42 day of age. Six experimental diets were formulated with three levels of supplemental L-leucine, 0, 0.5 and 0.67% and two levels of crude protein. A total of 180 1 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly divided into 36 experimental pens, 5 chickens in each pen, with each diet replicated 6 times. The dietary treatments were offered from 21-42 days of age. Feed intake, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured on a weekly basis. At the end of the feeding trial the birds were slaughtered and carcass analyses conducted. Results: Feed intake, weight gain and FCR were not affected by increasing levels of L-leucine supplementation. Weight gain was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas feed intake and FCR were not significantly affected with decreasing dietary crude protein. A positive response in breast meat yield was achieved by the addition of L-leucine to levels up to 0.5% in the diet but a significant decrease was noted when the level reached 0.67% in diet. Supplementation of L-leucine significantly (p<0.05) decreased the relative weights of the liver and gizzard. However, the addition of L-leucine significantly reduced carcass weights when L-leucine was added at 0.67%. Lowering the dietary protein level also significantly reduced breast yield and carcass weight (p<0.05). However, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver and heart were not affected by protein level. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that supplementation of L-leucine at levels up to 0.67% of the diet did not affect performance but deleteratious the carcass weight.
  M. Pasebani , H. Yaakub , K. Sijam and A. R. Alimon
  Problem statement: Bacteria can perform a variety of beneficial functions, for example many lactic acid bacteria are responsible for fermentation of silage in the process of forage conservation. In the making of silage, epiphytic lactic acid bacteria are usually insufficient in numbers to promote efficient lactate fermentation. This study was conducted to identify the predominant indigenous bacteria, with emphasis on lactic acid bacteria, from Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Approach: Two different condition of growth using nutrient and MRS agar were prepared for isolation of the bacteria. In total, 18 purified isolates were identified by BIOLOG identification system which comprised of 9 bacterial species. Standard plate count in the both conditions was considered. Results: Three bacterial species based on the first condition of growth were identified which were belonging to Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Enerobacter cloacae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis B. Lactic acid bacteria based on the second condition of growth were belonging to Weissella confusa, Weissella paramesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum, Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae. Result of plate count showed that 8.3x103 CFU lactic acid bacteria are available per gram of fresh guinea grass. Conclusion: Three hetero-fermentative and one homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria were identified which would be suggested to use as bacterial inoculants because of the insufficient amount of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria and the availability of pathogenic bacteria in the grass.
  S. Ganabadi , S. Mutuviren , M.A. Hilmi , S.M.A. Babjee , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
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  S. Ganabadi , S. Mutuviren , M.A. Hilmi , S.M.A. Babjee , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
  Carcass composition of three breed of chicken was compared: jungle fowl, broiler and Malaysian indigenous chicken. The chickens were sacrificed and were divided into forequarter and hindquarter. The forequarter was further divide into breast, wing and ribs. The muscle, bone, fat and skin of all different portions were separated, weighed and recorded. The results showed that broilers have significantly higher muscle weight compared to indigenous chicken and jungle fowl. The jungle fowl has significantly higher bone weight with least fat compared to the other two breeds The carcass composition of indigenous chicken is always in between the broiler and jungle fowl. Present results show that different habitat and feeding pattern of these chickens do contribute to these changes.
  F.J. AL-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
  The objective of this study was to apply and compare two different experimental osteoarthritis (OA) methods in the rat, namely: Collagenase induced OA (CO) and Monosodium iodoacetate induced OA (MIA) models. The assessment of OA development and progression were performed through three different periods (2, 4 and 6 weeks). Intra-articular injection of either 4 mg joint-1 CO type II or 3 mg joint-1 MIA, were administered to the adult male Sprague Dawley rats, into their right knee joints. Evaluation of OA changes in the knees was achieved with both histopathology score system and radiography approach. Gross results revealed earliest changes such as swelling and redness of the right knee joints of all rats injected with either CO or MIA. Joint dissection revealed distinct thickening of the joint capsule in MIA-injected rats than in CO group. Present finding revealed early development of radiographical as well as histopathological changes in MIA injected group. However, both OA injected groups resulted in a chronic joint degeneration, measured by cellular changes, matrix degradation, subchondral changes and marginal osteophyte formation. Present findings showed significantly higher histopathological score in MIA injected group than those of CO in each of the three selected periods for OA induction. In conclusion, present results demonstrated that MIA can induce OA changes in a shorter period of time than CO in the Sprague Dawley rat. Radiography approach could be a useful tool to evaluate osteoarthritic changes in the knee joints.
  E Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and H. Yaakub
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of excess leucine, in broiler diets containing varying levels of energy. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, the effects of leucine levels and dietary energy on performance and carcass characteristics of Cobb broiler chickens from 3 to 6 weeks of age were tested. Dietary treatments consisted of two levels of leucine i.e. 0 and 0.5% with two of metabolizable energy (ME) i.e. 3200 and 3000 kcal/kg, respectively. Reducing dietary energy decreased weight gain up to 7.4% (P<0.05). Decreasing dietary energy had no significant effect on feed consumption and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics. Increasing dietary leucine had no significant effect on feed consumption, weight gain and feed to gain ratio and carcass characteristics, but significantly increased carcass weight up to 9% (P<0.05). Dietary treatments had no significantly effect on mortality. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
  M.A. Yassir , A.K. Arifah , H. Yaakub , A. Zuraini and Z.A. Zakaria
  Special attention has been given to the milk Fatty Acids (FA) that have a beneficial effect for human health such as mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids in particularly the Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA). This study was undertaken to investigate the milk fat contents of CLA variables (CLA and CLA-desaturase index) and other FA composition of Mafriwal and Jersey cows under same feeding system. In addition, the relationship between these two CLA variables with milk production and milk fat percent was determined. All the cows were grazed on pasture and given 5.5 kg of concentrate per head daily. Milk FA composition was determined using gas chromatography after extraction of milk fat using modified Folch’s method. The results showed a significant variation (p<0.05) in the FA contents of the two breeds. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA and CLA-desaturase index in milk fat of Mafriwal were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Jersey cows. Mafriwal cows produced significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, C18:3 and C20:1 than that of Jersey, while Jersey cows produced significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of C12:0 and C14:0 than Mafriwal cows. Additionally, significant positive correlations were observed between CLA variables and milk production. This study indicates that the breed of cows has an effect on CLA and other FA composition of milk fat and Mafriwal cows produced significantly higher percentages of CLA than Jersey cows which would provide better benefits for human health. Furthermore, the milk fat content of CLA and CLA-desaturase index were positively related to the milk production.
  F.J. Al-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , S. Fakurazi and H. Yaakub
  The main objective of this study was to elucidate the extent of hepatic oxidative stress following oral administration of zerumbone against monosodium iodoacetate induced Osteoarthritis (OA) in rats by monitoring microsomal cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes as well as determination of oxidative stress biomarkers i.e., glutathione and malondialdehyde. Forty rats were randomly assigned into five groups. Rats in the first and second groups were treated with two different doses of zerumbone. Rats in the third group (positive control) were given celecoxib whereas the fourth group (negative control) was given corn oil. Rats of the fifth group were untreated not induced with OA and were used as a basal group. Results showed significant induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase and insignificant changes in both glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels in zerumbone treated groups compared to corn oil and basal groups. Levels of ALT and AST in zerumbone treated groups were comparable to the level in the basal group indicating absence of liver damage. Prostaglandin E2 level significantly reduced following zerumbone administration. Safety profile of zerumbone in this study, attract new investigation to explore its advantageous effect on using higher dosage regimen and/or longer duration against OA or other disease.
  A. Azizah , O.M. Ariff , H. Yaakub , J. Ahmad , S. Sukardi and H. Wahid
  The study was conducted to determine the differences in the interval between removal of Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) and standing oestrus (C_ES) interval between CIDR removal and Ovulation (C_OV) interval between oestrus and Ovulation (ES_OV), predetermined Artificial Insemination (AI) and Pregnancy rate following prostaglandin (PGF) treatment and CIDR removal at standing oestrus in Kedah-Kelantan (KK) and KK crossbred cows. A total of 35 KK (n = 11), Brakmas (BK: n = 10) and Charoke (CK: n = 14) cows were inserted with CIDR containing 1.38 g Progesterone (P4) for 7 days and followed with intramuscular injection of 500 μg Cloprosterol of PGF synthetic analogue 2 days prior CIDR removal. The oestrous behaviour was observed for 72 h at 2 h intervals beginning 12 h after CIDR removal. AI was carried out at 6 and 12 h after standing oestrus was detected. Mean interval between C_ES, C_OV and ES_OV were 52.97±6.16, 94.42±16.41 and 53.75±25.36 h, respectively. The number of follicles >5 mm in diameter at the time of CIDR removal was significantly lower in CK (p = 0.04) compared to KK. The results of POF size and number of follicle size ≥5 mm either at CIDR removal or prior ovulation and P4 concentration at day 0, 7 and 14 were found to be not significantly different at p = 0.05. The pregnancy rate was higher (p<0.05) in CK (43.8%) followed by KK (31.3%) and BK (25%). The study provides results which could be used in the development of TAI on oestrous synchronisation protocol of KK and KK crossbred cows.
  F.J. Al-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , S. Fakurazi , H. Yaakub and M. Lip
  The objective of this investigation was to evaluate chondroprotective effect of zerumbone, a purified compound of Zingiber zerumbet Smith against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat. The effect on the articular cartilage was examined and compared with celecoxib (Celebrex®), a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=10 for each). All animals were injected with MIA intraarticularly in their right knee joints to induce OA. Rats from first and second groups were treated with zerumbone in a same dose but with two different concentrations. Rats in the third group were treated with celecoxib and served as positive control whereas the fourth group were treated with corn oil and served as negative control. Evaluation of OA changes in the knees was assessed with the aid of both radiography and histopathology score. Macroscopic as well as microscopic examinations revealed curative effect of zerumbone in a dose dependent manner on the osteoarthritic knee joints. Apart from this, our data also revealed very poor anti-OA property of celecoxib. We concluded that oral administration of zerumbone in a dose of 2 mL kg-1 b.wt. of 0.4% w/v diluted with corn oil for a period of 4 weeks has some chondroprotective effects.
  A.W.M. Hafiz , Ismail Idris and H. Yaakub
  The objective of this study was to determine the growth pattern for body weight, hip height and body length using non-linear model and the correlation between the parameters in Brakmas cows. Cross-sectional data of body weight, hip height and body length of 363 heads of Brakmas cows were collected to determine the growth pattern using Brody and Gompertz growth model. The results showed that Gompertz growth function had the best goodness of fit to describe the growth of Brakmas cattle for body weight, hip height and body length as shown by its high coefficient of determination (0.96, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively). Brody model estimated higher mature sizes compared to Gompertz model as the rate of maturing derived by Brody model are lower for the parameters as shown by negative correlation between mature size and maturing. Body length-body weight has the highest correlation coefficient (0.95) and hip height-body weight showed the lowest relationship (0.92).
  R.M. Hifzan , Ismail Idris and H. Yaakub
  The objective of this research was to examine the growth pattern for body weight, body length and height at withers of Kalahari Red goats using non-linear models. The body size measurement data were collected from 227 Kalahari Red female goats and fit into Gompertz and Brody growth model. The results revealed that Gompertz growth model had the best goodness of fit to describe the growth of Kalahari Red goats for body weight, body length and height at withers as shown by higher coefficient of determination (97.9, 98.9 and 99.1, respectively). The correlation coefficients between A and k for body weight, body length and height at withers were negative in both models, implying that goats of larger mature size tended to have a slower growth rate in relation to their mature size. Height at withers-body weight has the highest correlation coefficient (0.96).
  E. Erwan , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili , H. Yaakub and R. Karim
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation in grower-finisher diets containing varying levels of energy on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition of broiler chickens. In a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, eighty 21-day old Cobb broiler chicks were divided into 16 groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % L-leucine and metabolizable energy (ME) concentration at either 3200 kcal/kg or 3000 kcal/kg, for three weeks. Feed intake, growth performance and feed conversion ration were determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered, carcass composition determined and meat samples taken for sensory evaluation. There was no interaction between level of L-leucine and ME on the sensory characteristics and carcass composition at 42 days. Dietary level of L-leucine and ME had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the live-weight, breast meat, lean, bone, fat and skin. Similarly, the flavour, tenderness, aroma, juiciness and overall acceptability scores of breast meat of broiler fed diets supplemented with leucine were also not significantly different. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of excess leucine in diets with reduced levels of crude protein.
 
 
 
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