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Articles by H. Vatandoost
Total Records ( 6 ) for H. Vatandoost
  Z. Telmadarraiy , A.R. Moradi , H. Vatandoost , E. Mostafavi , M.A. Oshaghi , A.H. Zahirnia , A. Haeri and S. Chinikar
  Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an arboviral zoonotic disease that is asymptomatic in infected animals, but a serious threat to humans. Numerous genera of ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHF virus. CCHF is an endemic disease in different provinces of Iran. In this study by the use of ELISA method, IgG antibodies against CCHF virus were detected in 15(27.8%) out of 54 sheep examined whereas none of the high risk human samples were positive in Bahar Township, a western region of Iran. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed CCHFV in 16.4% of hard tick samples. Six of 43(13.9%) Hyalomma ticks were infected. CCHFV was detected in 3 of 23 (13%) Rhipicephalus sp. and 1 of 5 (20%) of Haemaphysalis sp. Up to now there have been few confirmed human cases in this region. This study confirms the circulation of the virus in this region and so persons in close contact with livestock and also health care workers should be alarmed.
  H. Vatandoost , S. Gholizadeh , M.R. Abai and E. Djavadian
  The effect of torn bednets treated with three dosages of cyfluthrin 5% EW, deltamethrin 10% SC and permethrin 10% EC were evaluated under laboratory condition in. The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of impregnated torn bednets on the number of bites by An. stephensi. A glass tunnel test was designed to induce hungry female mosquitoes to pass through holes cut in the pyrethroid treated nets. A guinea pig used as bait to attract mosquitoes through circular holes in the netting. With untreated netting, 81-95% of laboratory-reared females passed through the holes overnight, 75-93% blood-fed successfully and 0.36-4% died. When the netting was treated with cyfluthrin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg a.i. m-2, the entry Index (the proportions that passed through the holes overnight) were 43.37, 41.82 and 23.72%; mortality rates were 66.31, 81.45 and 95.99%; and the feeding rate were 16.13, 9.82 and 1.09%. Experiments with deltamethrin treated nets at dosages of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg a.i. m-2, the entry index was 78.10, 61.54 and 27.34%, respectively, mortality rates were 53.26, 58.85 and 82.35%; blood feeding rate was 46.72, 31.15 and 13.49%. When the netting was impregnated with permethrin at dosages of 200 and 500 mg a.i. m-2, the entry index was 33.58 and 14.95%; mortality rates were 93.80 and 100% and blood-feeding rate was 5.11 and 0.36%. In conclusion it should be stressed that efficacy of pyrethroid impregnated bednets using ‚ÄúTunnel Tests”? showing acceptable protection rate both in lower and higher dosages as well as cause dead in the blood-fed mosquitoes. In addition, the higher dosages of these three pyrethroids provided good levels of protection against An. stephensi.
  M. Limoee , H. Ladonni , A.A. Enayati , H. Vatandoost and M. Aboulhasani
  The insecticide resistance status in seven field collected strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) against three pyrethroids: permethrin, cypermethrin and cyfluthrin and cross resistance between these pyrethroids and organochlorine DDT were detected by glass jar test method. For detection of pyrethroid resistance in adult males of field collected strains, the glass jar knockdown test was used and the susceptibility level of each field strain was compared with that of a standard susceptible strain based on Resistance Ratio (RR) calculated by dividing the KT 50 of field strain by the KT 50 of standard susceptible strain. Tests were replicated three to six times in groups of ten cockroaches. For detection of DDT resistance in adult males of the field collected strains, the glass jar mortality test was used to compare the susceptibility level of each field strain with that of susceptible strain based on the mortality rate obtained from exposing them to a single discriminating dose. Tests were replicated three or four times in groups of ten cockroaches. The results of this study indicated that all the field-collected strains of German cockroach were resistant to three pyrethroids: permethrin, cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, i.e., the Resistance Ratios (RRs) of different strains ranged from 5.26 to 23.7 fold for permethrin, 2.9 to 20.7 fold for cypermethrin and 2.4 to 11.42 fold for cyfluthrin, respectively. The order of resistance level to three pyrethroid insecticides was permethrin>cypermethrin>cyfluthrin. Among these seven fields collected strains, five showed high resistance to organochlorine DDT indicating the possible cross resistance between three pyrethroid insecticides used in this study and the organochlorine DDT. Present results demonstrated the differential responses among field collected strains of German cockroach to pyrethroid and DDT insecticides. The information achieved on cross resistance between these three pyrethroid insecticides used in this study and organochlorine DDT could provide the preliminary information for a mechanistic study on possible mechanisms of insecticide resistance in pyrethroid resistant strains.
  H. Vatandoost , S. Shamspour and M.R. Abai
  The efficacy of different synthetic pyrethroid-impregnated fabrics was evaluated against susceptible strain of An. stephensi under laboratory condition using a new method of WHO. LD50, LD90 and diagnostic dose of pyrethroids were calculated for each type of insecticides and fabrics. Results revealed that LD50 of lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and etofenprox were 1.84, 8.97, 0.15 and 40.6 mg m-2 on polyester; 3.19,11.73,10.94 and 103.01 mg m-2 on nylon and 9.95, 6.68, 46.75, 9.53 mg m-2 on cotton. The polyester net need the least concentration of insecticide and it showed the maximum mortality and minimum values of LD50, LD90 and diagnostic dose. So it is the best suitable net for impregnation. The cotton was the best for its persistence of insecticides. In all types of nets lambdacyhalothrin was significantly superior in comparison to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and etofenprox. Some exception was seen in cotton nets impregnated with etofenprox. LD50, LD90 and diagnostic dose were highly decreased in comparison with other pyrethroids.
  H. Darabi , H. Vatandoost , M.R. Abaei , O. Gharibi and F. Pakbaz
  Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, was evaluated under field conditions against the main malaria vectors in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The effect of 5, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 concentration of methoprene granule formulation and 100 and 200 mL ha-1 concentration of EC formulation was measured to determine any changes in Anophelini larval abundance and IE ratio in both rice fields and artificial ponds. In artificial ponds, granular methoprene at a dose of 20 kg ha-1 inhibited adult emergence by 77.1% after 1 day and 65.9% after 3 days. The emulsifiable concentrate formulation of methoprene at 200 mL ha-1 inhibited adult emergence by 83.7% after 1 day and 32.2% after 3 days. In rice fields, inhibition of emergence was 44.3% at 20 kg ha-1 granule and 35.8% for emulsifiable concentrate at 200 mL ha-1 after 3 days. The results vary depending on the mosquito species, treatment methods, breeding places and type of formulation.
  M.A. Oshaghi , F. Yaaghoobi , H. Vatandoost , M.R. Abaei and K. Akbarzadeh
  The species biological form composition and their spatial distribution was studied in south of Iran using egg morphological characters. All three known biological forms of the species; An. stephensi stephensi (type), intermediate and Mysorensis occur in the country; however their distribution and roles in malaria transmission are varied in each province. In Hormozgan province, all three forms were present. The type and intermediate forms with respectively 90 and 10% frequency occurred in urban-coastal or semi urban/rural-plain areas where An. stephensi is highly dominant and is the sole vector of disease. Mysorensis was found only in rural-mountainous areas where malaria is transmitted by other vectors. This is in agreement with the conventional idea that type form is important only in urban settings. However, in Sistan and Baluchistan which is the most malarious region of the country, in various human settings (urban/rural) and different climates only Mysorensis form was found. In Fars (Kazeron) which was previously a malaria endemic area and An. stephensi was the major vector, only intermediate was found. The biological differences in feeding behaviour and the differing vectorial capacity that have been observed in south of Iran can be explained in terms of the availability or limitation of animals` hosts. The results of this study emphasize on independent studies in each region, precaution in generalization and on reconsidering the conventional view about An. stephensi biological forms in western outreaches of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.
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