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Articles by H. Van Remmen
Total Records ( 2 ) for H. Van Remmen
  Y Shi , R Buffenstein , D. A Pulliam and H. Van Remmen

The oxidative stress theory and its correlate the mitochondrial theory of aging are among the most studied and widely accepted of all hypotheses of the mechanism of aging. To date, most of the supporting evidence for these theories has come from investigations using common model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and laboratory rodents. However, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms provide equivocal support as to whether oxidative stress is merely a correlate, rather than a determinant, of species’ maximum lifespan. The great majority of studies in this area have been devoted to the relationship between reactive oxygen species and maximal longevity in young adult organisms, with little emphasis on mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, age-related alterations in mitochondrial physiology or oxidative damage. The advantage of studying a broader spectrum of species is the broad range of virtually every biological phenotype/trait, such as lifespan, body weight and metabolic rate. Here we summarize the results from a number of comparative studies in an effort to correlate oxidant production and oxidative damage among many species with their maximal lifespan and briefly discuss the pitfalls and limitations. Based on current information, it is not possible to accept or dispute the oxidative stress theory of aging, nor can we exclude the possibility that private mechanisms might offer an explanation for the longevity of exceptionally long-lived animal models. Thus, there is need for more thorough and controlled investigations with more unconventional animal models for a deeper understanding of the role of oxidative stress in longevity.

  M. S Lustgarten , Y. C Jang , Y Liu , F. L Muller , W Qi , M Steinhelper , S. V Brooks , L Larkin , T Shimizu , T Shirasawa , L. M McManus , A Bhattacharya , A Richardson and H. Van Remmen

In vitro studies of isolated skeletal muscle have shown that oxidative stress is limiting with respect to contractile function. Mitochondria are a potential source of muscle function-limiting oxidants. To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress is sufficient to limit muscle function, we bred mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the promoter for the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TnIFast-iCre) with mice containing a floxed Sod2 (Sod2fl/fl) allele. Mn-SOD activity was reduced by 82% in glycolytic (mainly type II) muscle fiber homogenates from young TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Furthermore, Mn-SOD content was reduced by 70% only in type IIB muscle fibers. Aconitase activity was decreased by 56%, which suggests an increase in mitochondrial matrix superoxide. Mitochondrial superoxide release was elevated more than twofold by mitochondria isolated from glycolytic skeletal muscle in TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. In contrast, the rate of mitochondrial H2O2 production was reduced by 33%, and only during respiration with complex II substrate. F2-isoprostanes were increased by 36% in tibialis anterior muscles isolated from TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Elevated glycolytic muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice were associated with a decreased ability of the extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles to produce contractile force as a function of time, whereas force production by the soleus muscle was unaffected. TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice ran 55% less distance on a treadmill than wild-type mice. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in glycolytic muscle fibers are sufficient to reduce contractile muscle function and aerobic exercise capacity.

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