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Articles by H. Mukhtar
Total Records ( 9 ) for H. Mukhtar
  Y Suh , F Afaq , N Khan , J. J Johnson , F. H Khusro and H. Mukhtar

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is an important component of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is frequently deregulated in prostate cancer (CaP). Recent studies suggest that targeting PTEN/PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathway could be an effective strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory CaP. Here, we show that the treatment of androgen-independent and PTEN-negative human CaP PC3 cells with fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, resulted in inhibition of mTOR kinase signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with fisetin inhibited mTOR activity and downregulated Raptor, Rictor, PRAS40 and GβL that resulted in loss of mTOR complexes (mTORC)1/2 formation. Fisetin also activated the mTOR repressor TSC2 through inhibition of Akt and activation of AMPK. Fisetin-mediated inhibition of mTOR resulted in hypophosphorylation of 4EBP1 and suppression of Cap-dependent translation. We also found that fisetin treatment leads to induction of autophagic-programmed cell death rather than cytoprotective autophagy as shown by small interfering RNA Beclin1-knockdown and autophagy inhibitor. Taken together, we provide evidence that fisetin functions as a dual inhibitor of mTORC1/2 signaling leading to inhibition of Cap-dependent translation and induction of autophagic cell death in PC3 cells. These results suggest that fisetin could be a useful chemotherapeutic agent in treatment of hormone refractory CaP.

  R. S Tarapore , I. A Siddiqui , M Saleem , V. M Adhami , V. S Spiegelman and H. Mukhtar

Wingless (Wnt) signaling pathway regulates a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis and cell motility. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed in approximately one-third of melanomas and this subset has very poor prognosis suggesting that targeting Wnt signaling could be a promising strategy against this subtype. Mel 928 and Mel 1241 melanoma cells representative of cells with constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and Mel 1011 representative of cells that lack this pathway were treated with a dietary triterpene lupeol and its effects on growth, proliferation, β-catenin transcriptional activity and Wnt target genes were determined both in vitro and in vivo. Lupeol treatment to Mel 928 and Mel 1241 but not Mel 1011 cells resulted in a dose-dependent (i) decrease in cell viability, (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) decrease in colonogenic potential, (iv) decrease in β-catenin transcriptional activity and (v) decrease in the expression of Wnt target genes. Most importantly, lupeol restricted the translocation of β-catenin from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Lupeol also decreased the growth of Mel 928 but not Mel 1011-derived tumors implanted in the athymic nude mice. The decrease in Mel 928-derived tumor growth was associated with a decrease in the expression of Wnt target genes c-myc, cyclin D1, proliferation markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 and invasion marker osteopontin. We suggest that lupeol alone or as an adjuvant to current therapies could be developed as an agent for the management of human melanomas harboring constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  S.B. Daffalla , H. Mukhtar and M.S. Shaharun
  Over the last three decades, there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution. Among various water pollutants, phenol and its derivatives are the most toxic because they are carcinogenic in nature. The objective of this study was to develop novel, low-cost adsorbent from rice husk modified by thermal and chemical treatments for the effective removal of phenol from industrial wastewater. The physical and surface properties of the developed adsorbents were characterized using FTIR, SEM and FSEM. The results indicated that the pretreatment of rice husk has caused the functional groups (-OH, Si-OH, C-H, C=O, C=C, CH2, CH3, CO, Si-O-Si, C-C, Si-H, -O-CH3) on the surface of adsorbent to change and the specific surface area to increase. The adsorption capacity was greatly influenced by surface group changes. The effects of the presence of the surface functional group on adsorption of phenol were analyzed by observing the shifting of the FTIR peaks after the adsorption experiment. Analysis of FTIR shows that the -OH, C-H,-CO, C-OH, Si-OH and -Si-H groups contribute to the adsorption of phenol onto the surface of adsorbent.
  B. Shimekit , H. Mukhtar and S. Maitra
  Different well-known gas permeation theoretical models such as Maxwell model, Bruggeman model, Lewis-Nielson model, Pal model, Felske model and modified Felske model has been discussed for prediction of the relative permeability of CO2 in Matrimid® 5218-Carbon Molecular Sieve (CMS) Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs). For evaluation of the theoretical models, experimental data of relative permeability for CO2 in Matrimid® 5218-Carbon Molecular Sieve (CMS) mixed matrix membrane were compared with the prediction of the theoretical models for the relative permeability of CO2 in ideal and rigidified interfacial morphology of the mixed matrix membrane. Comparison of those models was carried out based on the widely used model validation criteria including absolute average relative error percent and standard deviation. For the models evaluated under ideal morphology, the results showed a decrease in the absolute average relative error percent and standard deviation in the following order: Pal model > Lewis-Nielsen model > Maxwell model > Bruggeman model. For other models evaluated considering the presence of rigidified interfacial morphology, the absolute average relative error percent and standard deviation showed a decrease in the order, Felske model > modified Felske model. Hence, the modified Felske model was found to be in a better agreement with experimental data for prediction of relative permeability CO2 in Matrimid® 5218-CMS mixed matrix membrane.
  S. Binyam , H. Mukhtar and K.K. Lau
  Amine based sweetening process has been widely used for the removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from sour natural gas. However, during the process of absorption-desorption, a small amount of amine get carries over and discharged into the effluent wastewater stream. Treatment of amine wastewater using existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without any dilution is very challenging due to its high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). However, dilution increases the volume of the wastewater and requires extension of the existing WWTP. Therefore, treatment of amine contaminated wastewater is a major concern for amine sweetening plants. Limited work has been done for treatment of amine contaminated wastewater, especially using membrane separation processes. The present study investigated the flux and rejection characteristics of methyldiethanolamine solution across composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane (AFC99). The experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of pressure, cross flow velocity and pH. The findings showed that AFC99 membrane was able to reject up to 99% of MDEA depending on the operating conditions.
  N. Azmi , H. Mukhtar and K.M. Sabil
  High carbon dioxide (CO2) content in natural gas may constitute some environmental hazards when release to the atmosphere. A variety of conventional separation methods are presently being used to remove the undesired gas fraction from crude natural gas. One promising approach to capture CO2 from natural gas is by formation of gas hydrate. Gas hydrates can be formed in a system containing water and small molecule gases such as CH4 and CO2 at appropriate pressure and temperature conditions. It is important to gain accurate data of the phase behavior of the gas hydrate forming systems to ensure that the process conditions are set in hydrate forming conditions. In this study, thermodynamics modeling approached is implemented to generate the phase equilibria data since the phase behavior measurements are often expensive, tedious and time consuming processes. The thermodynamic program, CSMGem is successfully used for prediction of equilibrium conditions for single and binary hydrate former systems with AAD% is less than 10%. The program is being further used to predict gas hydrate equilibrium for natural gas with different concentration of CO2.
  K.M. Sabil , N. Azmi and H. Mukhtar
  The enticing characteristics of carbon dioxide hydrates initiate numerous research activities around the globe and in a wide variety of fields from carbon dioxide sequestration to cool storage applications. A general introduction to clathrate hydrates and carbon dioxide hydrates in particular has been discussed. The motivations behind carbon dioxide hydrate research and the general fields of interest for these compounds are briefly explained in this study.
  Z.A. Chandio , M. Ramasamy and H. Mukhtar
  All of the organic fouling in petroleum refinery crude preheat train is caused by insoluble asphaltenes and the effect of bulk temperature on solubility of asphaltenes is somewhat uncertain. In this study, the effect of bulk temperature on flocculation and precipitation of asphaltenes in crude oil residue has been investigated at different temperatures from 20-95°C using automated flocculation titrimeter. It is observed that the solubility parameter and solvating power of the oil increased with the increase in temperature. The results indicate that solubility of the particles in oil and overall stability of the oil increased with the increase in temperature in the range studied.
  R. Nasir , H. Mukhtar and Z. Man
  The polymeric membrane is a well-known membrane due to ease of processing and mechanical stability. These membranes extensively used for the separation of carbon dioxide from methane but the applications of these membranes are limited in order to achieve high permeability and selectivity. In this study the amine polymeric membrane has been fabricated by the addition of N-methyl-diethanolamine in polyethersulfone solution, the N- methyl-2 pyrrolidone used as solvent. The characterization of fabricated membrane has been carried out in order to investigate the morphology, thermal properties and identification of functional group by using field emission scanning electron microscope, thermo gravimetric analyzer and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The permeability and selectivity study were also carried out by using pure carbon dioxide and methane. The permeability and selectivity has been increased as compared to pure polyethersulfone membrane.
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