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Articles by H. Chen
Total Records ( 15 ) for H. Chen
  L.J. Hou , M. Liu , Y. Yang , D.N. Ou , X. Lin , H. Chen and S.Y. Xu
  In order to better understand P cycling and bioavailability in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary, both surface (0–5 cm) and core (30 cm long) sediments were collected and sequentially extracted to analyze the solid-phase reservoirs of sedimentary P: loosely sorbed P; Fe-bound P; authigenic P; detrital P; and organic P. The total sedimentary P in surface and core sediments ranged from 14.58–36.81 μmol g−1 and 17.11–24.55 μmol g−1, respectively, and was dominated by inorganic P. The average percentage of each fraction of P in surface sediments followed the sequence: detrital P (54.9%) > Fe-bound P (23.7%) > organic P (14.3%) > authigenic P (6.3%) > loosely sorbed P (0.8%), whereas in core sediments it followed the sequence: detrital P (61.7%) > Fe-bound P (17.0%) > authigenic P (13.1%) > organic P (7.5%) > loosely sorbed P (0.7%). Post-depositional reorganization of P was observed in both surface and core sediments, converting organic P and Fe-bound P to authigenic P. The accumulation rates and burial efficiencies of the total P in the intertidal area ranged from 118.70–904.98 μmol cm−2 a−1 and 80.29–88.11%, respectively. High burial efficiency of the total P is likely related to the high percentage of detrital P and the high sediment accumulation rate. In addition, the bioavailable P represented a significant proportion of the sedimentary P pool, which on average accounted for 37.4% and 25.1% of the total P in surface and core sediments, respectively. This result indicates that the tidal sediment is a potential internal source of P for this P-limiting estuarine ecosystem.
  S. N Pinchot , H Al Wagih , S Schaefer , R Sippel and H. Chen

Hypothesis  All thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger should be surgically removed regardless of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results because of an unacceptably high rate of false-negative preoperative biopsy results in these large nodules.

Design  Retrospective cohort study.

Setting  Single-institution, tertiary academic referral center.

Patients  A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule 4 cm or larger from May 1, 1994, through January 31, 2007.

Main Outcome Measures  Preoperative FNAB results were correlated with final surgical pathologic results. The FNAB results were reported as nondiagnostic, benign, inconclusive (follicular neoplasm), or malignant, whereas the final surgical pathologic data were reported as benign or malignant.

Results  Of 155 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for a nodule 4 cm or larger, 21 patients (13.5%) had a clinically significant thyroid carcinoma within the nodule on final pathologic analysis. Preoperative cytologic testing of the mass was performed on 97 patients, and the results read as benign for 52, inconclusive for 23, nondiagnostic for 11, and malignant for 11. In lesions 4 cm or larger, 26 of 52 FNAB results reported as benign (50.0%) turned out to be either neoplastic (22) or malignant (4) on final pathologic analysis. Among patients with nondiagnostic FNAB results, the risk of malignant neoplasms was 27.3%.

Conclusions  In patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger, the FNAB results are highly inaccurate, misclassifying half of all patients with reportedly benign lesions. Furthermore, those patients with a nondiagnostic FNAB result display a high risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we recommend that diagnostic lobectomy be strongly considered in patients with thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger regardless of FNAB cytologic test results.

  P. D. Home , C. J. Bailey , J. Donaldson , H. Chen and M. W. Stewart

Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of either continuing or discontinuing rosiglitazone + metformin fixed-dose combination when starting insulin therapy in people with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral therapy.

Methods In this 24-week double-blind study, 324 individuals with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on maximum dose rosiglitazone + metformin therapy were randomly assigned to twice-daily premix insulin therapy (target pre-breakfast and pre-evening meal glucose ≤ 6.5 mmol/l) in addition to either rosiglitazone + metformin (8/2000 mg) or placebo.

Results Insulin dose at week 24 was significantly lower with rosiglitazone + metformin (33.5 ± 1.5 U/day, mean ± se) compared with placebo [59.0 ± 3.0 U/day; model-adjusted difference −26.6 (95% CI −37.7, −15,5) U/day, P < 0.001]. Despite this, there was greater improvement in glycaemic control [HbA1c rosiglitazone + metformin vs. placebo 6.8 ± 0.1 vs. 7.5 ± 0.1%; difference −0.7 (−0.8, −0.5)%, P < 0.001] and more individuals achieved glycaemic targets (HbA1c < 7.0% 70 vs. 34%, P < 0.001). The proportion of individuals reporting at least one hypoglycaemic event during the last 12 weeks of treatment was similar in the two groups (rosiglitazone + metformin vs. placebo 25 vs. 27%). People receiving rosiglitazone + metformin in addition to insulin reported greater treatment satisfaction than those receiving insulin alone. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated but more participants had oedema [12 (7%) vs. 4 (3%)] and there was more weight gain [3.7 vs. 2.6 kg; difference 1.1 (0.2, 2.1) kg, P = 0.02] with rosiglitazone + metformin.

Conclusions Addition of insulin to rosiglitazone + metformin enabled more people to reach glycaemic targets with less insulin, and was generally well tolerated.

  J. Jang , Y. C. Yang , G. H. Zhang , H. Chen , J. L. Lu , Y. Y. Du , J. H. Ye , Q. Ye , D. Borthakur , X. Q. Zheng and Y. R. Liang
  Many volatiles in fresh tea leaf are in the forms bound with glycosides and they are released by action of β-primeverosidase and β-glucosidase during tea processing. Effect of ultra-violet B on release of volatiles in fresh tea leaves of two tea cultivars, “Maoxie” and “Anhui-9,” were investigated. Types of volatile and their concentration increased when ultra-violet B was applied at 3.0 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2 h and then decreased as the irradiation was extended to 6 h. The relation of expression of β-primeverosidase and β-glucosidase genes to the release of volatiles were also discussed.
  B.C. LI , H. Chen , X.J. Xiao , Wei Han , Qi Xu , Wu Xinsheng , Wenbin Bao and G.H. Chen
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three cryorotectants (at three concentration each) and two cryopreservation protocols on the preservation of chicken Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) from gonads at stage 19 and stage 28. The PGCs were cryopreserved using Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO; 10%, 20%, 30%), glycol (GLY; 10%, 20%, 30%), polyethylene glycol (PEG; 10%, 20%, 30%). In a first series of experiments, we compared viability after three cryorotectants based protocol I and found the viability of PGCs showed very significant percentage (86.53%) (p<0.01) in a freezing media IV. We then compared an cryopreserve protocol I with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)+5% Glycol versus a cryoprotectant protocol II and observed a better viability with the former protocol (85.9% versus 67.4%, p<0.05). Finally, we compared viability of PGCs at three concentration each cryorotectant and found no significant difference p>0.05 between the concentration of 10% and 15% except freezing media III. When the concentration was 20%, the viability of PGCs was the lowest and showed significant difference p<0.05 or very significant difference (p<0.01) compared to other concentration. In conclusion, 5% DMSO+5%GLY with cryopreserve protocol I was the most effective cryopreservation for chicken primordial germ cells.
  H. Chen , F.F. Yan , J.Y. Hu , Yanan Wu , C.M. Tucker , A.R. Green and H.W. Cheng
  Background and Objective: Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most prominent aerial pollutants inside poultry barns, affecting chicken health and well-being based on its level and exposure duration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 ppm NH3 on the immune response of laying hens. Methodology: Hy-Line W-36 hens at 18 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 hen cages and evenly distributed to two controlled environment chambers. Beginning at 25 weeks of age, one chamber was maintained continuously with fresh air (NH3 < 5 ppm; control group) and the other one was injected with NH3 and controlled at 30 ppm (NH3 group) for 25 weeks. At 50 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of total immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM), complement factors (C3 and C4), albumin (ALB), Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the spleens were determined (n = 16). Results: Hens exposed to NH3 had a greater Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L) ratio (p<0.05) but lower plasma concentrations of IgM and C4 (p<0.05, respectively) than control hens. There were no differences in the concentrations of other measured parameters between NH3 exposed hens and control hens (p>0.05, respectively). Conclusion: These findings suggested that NH3 exposure at 30 ppm for 25 weeks increases stress status and suppresses immunity of laying hens as indicated by the changes of H/L ratio and plasma IgM and C4 concentrations.
  T.S. Xu , J.B. Liu , D.W. Yao , H.F. Cai , H. Chen , H.L. Zhou and X.Y. Lan
  Due to the significant influence of GH, PRL and PIT1 mutations on production traits, Prophet of PIT1 (PROP1) regulating them is considered as an important and potential candidate gene for goat growth traits by Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Using Hin6I PCR-RFLP, this study verified the AF453512: g.1795C >T resulting in GCG (79Ala)>GTA (79Val) within PROP1 gene in Hainan Black Goat (HNBG). Three genotypes (CC, CT and TT) were observed and their frequencies were 0.310, 0.493 and 0.197, respectively. The allelic frequencies of allele C and T were 0.556 and 0.444, respectively in analyzed population with Hardy-weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). Combining with the reported genotypic frequencies at Hin6I locus in cashmere goat breeds (IMWC and SBWC), dairy goat breeds (Sa, LS and GZ), genotypic frequency of HNBG population showed significant differences when compared with other goat breeds (p<0.001) as well as significant differences of allelic frequencies between HNBG and other breeds were revealed (p<0.001), implying that the allele T possibly was associated with the meat traits and growth traits. Association analysis showed significant relationships between Hin6I polymorphisms and Body Length (BL), Chest Circumferene (ChC), Chest Width (ChW) and Cannon Circumference Index (CaCI) ((p<0.05), suggesting that the PROP1 gene produced significant influences on growth trait. The individuals with genotype CT demonstrated better Body Length (BL), Chest Circumferene (ChC) and Cannon Circumference Index (CaCI) (p<0.05) when compared with those of individuals with genotype CC.
  Y. Ma , R.R. Li , F. Hou , Y.H. Zhang , H. Chen , S.Z. Xu , N. Cheng and W.S. Liu
  Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a member of the angiopoietin-like gene family, encodes a glycosylated, secreted protein with a fibrinogen C-terminal domain which is induced under hypoxic conditions in endothelial cells and is the target of peroxisome proliferation activators. ANGPTL4 is a serum hormone directly involved in regulating angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cancer and metabolic diseases. In this study, Radiation Hybrid (RH) cloning board technique, PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed to map bovine ANGPTL4 gene and examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 3'UTR of this gene in 281 cattle from seven breeds. Here, the bovine ANGPTL4 gene was located between the framework marker CA006 and DIK4204 on BTA7 with a map distance of 2.33 cR to the former and an interval of 8.54 cR to the latter. A novel mutation (NC_007305.3: g.C6640T) was revealed which constructed three genotypes (CC, CT and TT). This locus proved to be significantly associated with Average Daily Gain (ADG), Rib-eye Area (REA), Intramuscular Fat (IMF) (p<0.05) and Beef Performance Index (BPI) (p<0.01) in the analyzed populations. Meanwhile, individuals with genotype TT were significantly higher than those with CC in BPI, ADG and REA while it was reversed for genotype TT and CC in the IMF which proved that bovine ANGPTL4 gene had a positive effect on production traits. Hence, genotype TT and CC could be regarded as molecular markers for BPI, ADG and REA and IMF, respectively.
  H. Chen , P. T. Rygiewicz , M. G. Johnson , M. E. Harmon , H. Tian and J. W. Tang
  Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming may affect the quality of litters of forest plants and their subsequent decomposition in ecosystems, thereby potentially affecting the global carbon cycle. However, few data on root tissues are available to test this feedback to the atmosphere. In this study, we used fine (diameter ≤ 2 mm) and small (2–10 mm) roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings that were grown for 4 yr in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment: ambient or elevated (+ 180 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and ambient or elevated (+3.8°C) atmospheric temperature. Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased water-soluble extractives concentration (%WSE), but had little effect on the concentration of N, cellulose, and lignin of roots. Elevated temperature had no effect on substrate quality except for increasing %WSE and decreasing the %lignin content of fine roots. No significant interaction was found between CO2 and temperature treatments on substrate quality, except for %WSE of the fine roots. Short-term (≤ 9 mo) root decomposition in the field indicated that the roots from the ambient CO2 and ambient temperature treatment had the slowest rate. However, over a longer period of incubation (9–36 mo) the influence of initial substrate quality on root decomposition diminished. Instead, the location of the field incubation sites exhibited significant control on decomposition. Roots at the warmer, low elevation site decomposed significantly faster than the ones at the cooler, high elevation site. This study indicates that short-term decomposition and long-term responses are not similar. It also suggests that increasing atmospheric CO2 had little effect on the carbon storage of Douglas-fir old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest.
  M Bodirsky and H. Chen

Establishing local consistency is one of the main algorithmic techniques in temporal and spatial reasoning. Acentral question for the various proposed temporal and spatial constraint languages is whether local consistency implies global consistency. Showing that a constraint language has this ‘local-to-global’ property implies polynomial-time tractability of the constraint language, and has further pleasant algorithmic consequences. In the present article, we study the ‘local-to-global’ property by making use of a recently established connection of this property with universal algebra. Roughly speaking, the connection shows that this property is equivalent to the presence of a so-called quasi near-unanimity (QNU) polymorphism of the constraint language. We obtain new algorithmic results and give very concise proofs of previously known theorems. Our results concern well-known and heavily studied formalisms such as the point algebra, Allen's interval algebra and the spatial reasoning language RCC-5.

  H. Endo , M. Tabuchi , M.S. Ashenagar , K. Ooshima , H. Chen and H. Higashino
  To clarify the role of adrenal glands in hypertensive animals, levels of catecholamines and corticosteroids in plasma and the mRNA expression of the associated enzymes were measured in 6 and 9-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) following cold stress. With and without cold stress immersing in cold water at 4°C for 15 sec, catecholamines, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids in plasma and mRNA expression in adrenal glands were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and DNA microarray, respectively. L-dopa, dopamine and adrenaline in plasma increased more in SHRSP than WKY at 6 and 9 weeks of age after cold stress. Th, Ddc and Dbh mRNAs were upregulated in the adrenal glands of SHRSP after cold stress, more apparent at 6 weeks than at 9 weeks of age. Corticosterone and aldosterone in plasma increased in both SHRSP and WKY, but this effect was more apparent in SHRSP after elevation of ACTH evoked by cold stress. Expressions of cyp11a1 and cyp21a1 mRNAs were upregulated in both SHRSP and WKY at 6 weeks of age after cold stress. We conclude that l-dopa, dopamine, and adrenaline were synthesized following induction of Th, Ddc and Dbh mRNAs. Corticosterone and aldosterone in plasma increased following the induction of cyp11a1 and cyp21a1 mRNAs which are stimulated along with ACTH elevation following cold stress in young SHRSP more than WKY. This difference may be related to the initiation and/or development of hypertension in SHRSP in normal condition and/or during stress.
  J. Wang , D. Vijaykrishna , L. Duan , J. Bahl , J. X. Zhang , R. G. Webster , J. S. M. Peiris , H. Chen , Gavin J. D. Smith and Y. Guan
  The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (≥99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  M. H Chiang , F. Y Liang , C. P Chen , C. W Chang , M. L Cheong , L. J Wang , C. Y Liang , F. Y Lin , C. C Chou and H. Chen

Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy-specific disorder affecting 5–7% of pregnancies worldwide. Although hypoxia caused by incomplete trophoblast invasion and impaired spiral arterial remodeling is thought to be a major cause of preeclampsia, how hypoxia affects placental development remains uncertain. GCM1 (glial cells missing homolog 1) is a transcription factor critical for placental development. In preeclampsia, GCM1 and its target genes syncytin 1 and placental growth factor, important for syncytiotrophoblast formation and placental vasculogenesis, are all decreased. Here we present evidence that GCM1 is a major target of hypoxia associated with preeclampsia. We show that hypoxia triggers GCM1 degradation by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway, leading to GSK-3β activation. Activated GSK-3β phosphorylates GCM1 on Ser322, which in turn recruits the F-box protein FBW2, leading to GCM1 ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, the GSK-3β inhibitor LiCl prevented hypoxia-induced GCM1 degradation. Our study identifies a molecular basis for the disrupted GCM1 transcription network in preeclampsia and provides a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention.

  Z. Wang , K. Shi , H. Chen , F. Feng , J.C. Sun and Z. Han
  High quality biaxially textured yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films, as buffer layers of coated conductors, were deposited on hastelloy substrates by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method with different assisting ion energy Ei. The roles of assisting ion beam and the influences of ion energy Ei on the structure of the films were studied. It was found that both the out-of-plane alignment and in-plane texture of the IBAD-YSZ films are sensitive to the variation of Ei. The results are explained in the paper by different damage tolerance of the differently oriented grains to ion bombardment.
  H. Sheng , Y. Lu and H. Chen
  The purpose of this study was to investigate ocular complications among a group of patients on long-term, high-dose immunosuppression and corticosteroids for the maintenance of orthotopic heart transplants. Additionally, we provided information pertinent for the early diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. In this study, we retrospectively assessed the clinical data of 138 patients with orthotopic heart transplantations from May 2000 to October 2005, including assessment of ophthalmic symptoms and signs, as well as the general condition, treatment, and prognosis. Of 138 transplant recipients examined (276 eyes), 47 eyes (17.0%) showed ocular surface diseases. Sixty-four (23.2%) had a posterior subcapsular cataract, and 16 (5.8%) corticosteroid glaucoma. Fifteen (5.6%) had ocular fundus diseases. Various ocular complications related to immunosuppression and corticosteroids appear among heart transplant patients. Cardiac surgeons and ophthalmologists must closely evaluate ocular symptoms in the posttransplantation period.
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