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Articles by H. T Chen
Total Records ( 2 ) for H. T Chen
  H. S Liu , P. Y Hsu , M. D Lai , H. Y Chang , C. L Ho , H. L Cheng , H. T Chen , Y. J Lin , T. J Wu , T. S Tzai and N. H. Chow

Homodimerization of RON (MST1R), a receptor tyrosine kinase, usually occurs in cells stimulated by a ligand and leads to the downstream activation of signaling pathways. Here we report that bladder cancer cells, in response to physiological stress, use an alternative mechanism for signaling activation. Time-course studies indicated that RON migrated directly from the membrane to the nucleus of bladder cancer cells in response to serum starvation. Biochemical and genetic studies implied that this nuclear internalization was complexed with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and required the docking of importins. In vivo analysis confirmed that nuclear RON was present in 38.4% (28/73) of primary bladder tumors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on microarray analysis further revealed that this internalized complex bound to at least 134 target genes known to participate in three stress-responsive networks: p53, stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. These findings suggest that RON, in a complex with EGFR, acts as a transcriptional regulator in response to acute disturbances (e.g. serum starvation) imposed on cancer cells. In an attempt to re-establish homeostasis, these cells bypass regular mechanisms required by ligand stimulation and trigger the RON-directed transcriptional response, which confers a survival advantage.

  M. A Santos , M. S. Y Huen , M Jankovic , H. T Chen , A. J Lopez Contreras , I. A Klein , N Wong , J. L. R Barbancho , O Fernandez Capetillo , M. C Nussenzweig , J Chen and A. Nussenzweig

53BP1 is a well-known mediator of the cellular response to DNA damage. Two alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain 53BP1’s interaction with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one by binding to methylated histones and the other via an RNF8 E3 ligase–dependent ubiquitylation pathway. The formation of RNF8 and 53BP1 irradiation-induced foci are both dependent on histone H2AX. To evaluate the contribution of the RNF8-dependent pathway to 53BP1 function, we generated RNF8 knockout mice. We report that RNF8 deficiency results in defective class switch recombination (CSR) and accumulation of unresolved immunoglobulin heavy chain–associated DSBs. The CSR DSB repair defect is milder than that observed in the absence of 53BP1 but similar to that found in H2AX–/– mice. Moreover, similar to H2AX but different from 53BP1 deficiency, RNF8–/– males are sterile, and this is associated with defective ubiquitylation of the XY chromatin. Combined loss of H2AX and RNF8 does not cause further impairment in CSR, demonstrating that the two genes function epistatically. Importantly, although 53BP1 foci formation is RNF8 dependent, its binding to chromatin is preserved in the absence of RNF8. This suggests a two-step mechanism for 53BP1 association with chromatin in which constitutive loading is dependent on interactions with methylated histones, whereas DNA damage–inducible RNF8-dependent ubiquitylation allows its accumulation at damaged chromatin.

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