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Articles by H. S Kim
Total Records ( 16 ) for H. S Kim
  E. H Koh , M Kim , K. C Ranjan , H. S Kim , H. S Park , K. S Oh , I. S Park , W. J Lee , M. S Kim , J. Y Park , J. H Youn and K. U. Lee
 

Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. We recently reported that adiponectin synthesis is regulated by mitochondrial function in adipocytes. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in adiponectin synthesis by producing NO and enhancing mitochondrial function in adipocytes. We examined the effects of eNOS knockdown on adiponectin synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and also examined plasma adiponectin levels and the mitochondria in adipose tissue of eNOS knockout (eNOS–/–) mice with and without chronic administration of a NO donor. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, eNOS siRNA decreased rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin secretion, which was associated with decreases in mitochondrial proteins and biogenesis factors. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were reduced in adult eNOS–/– mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Mitochondrial contents in adipose tissue were reduced in eNOS–/– mice, and this was associated with decreased expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, increased levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and morphological abnormalities in mitochondria. Rosiglitazone-induced increases in adiponectin expression and mitochondrial content were also reduced significantly in eNOS–/– mice. Chronic administration of a NO donor reversed mitochondrial abnormalities and increased adiponectin expression in adipose tissue of eNOS–/– mice. eNOS plays an important role in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and enhancing mitochondrial function.

  H. S Na , J. T Kim , H. S Kim , J. H Bahk , C. S Kim and S. D. Kim
  Background

Various methods have been recommended to decide a proper insertion depth of central venous catheter (CVC). The carina is recommended as a useful target level for the CVC tip position. We evaluated the sternal head of a right clavicle and the nipples as anatomic landmarks for determining the optimal depth of CVC in paediatric patients.

Methods

Ninety children, <5 yr, undergoing catheterization through the right internal jugular vein were enrolled. The insertion depth was determined as follows. The insertion point was designated as ‘Point I’. The sternal head of the right clavicle was called ‘Point A’ and the midpoint of the perpendicular line drawn from Point A to the line connecting both nipples was called ‘Point B’. The insertion depth of CVC was determined by adding the two distances (from I to A and from A to B) and subtracting 0.5 cm from this. A chest radiography was taken and the distance of the CVC tip from the carina level was measured by the Picture Archiving and Communicating System.

Results

The mean distance of the CVC tip from the carina level was 0.1 (1.0) (P=0.293) cm above the carina (95% CI 0.1 cm below the carina–0.3 cm above the carina). There was no specific relationship between the distance of the CVC tip from the carina level and the patients’ age, height, and weight.

Conclusions

The CVC tip could be placed near the carina by using the external landmarks without any formulae, images, and devices in children in our study.

  J. S Choi , H. S Kim , K. R Mun , D. W Kang , M. S Kang , Y. H Bang , H. S Oh , J. H Yi , Y. T Lim and G. R. Tack
 

Putting is a crucial stroke to determine winning in golf. Putting is more delicate than any other strokes in golf. To keep better putting stroke, psychological factors as well as physical factors are important for golfers. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in kinematic and psychological variables between winner and loser of three skilled levels during competitive golf putting tournament. The participants consisted of 3 groups based on their skill levels: PG (8 professional golfers), RG (8 recreational golfers) and NG (8 novice golfers). Each group performed 8 tournaments by attempting 2.1 m putting from the hole. 3D motion analysis system with 6 high speed cameras and BIOPAC ECG module were used to acquire kinematic data and ECG. To compare differences between winner and loser for each group, time phase of putting stroke, smoothness by jerk cost function (JC), heart rate (HR), ratio of low and high frequency component (LF/HF) in heart rate variability and CSAI-2 scores (competitive state anxiety inventory 2) were used. There was a significant difference in back-swing phase time ratio between PG and other groups and in JC at the putter toe between NG and other groups. There was a significant difference in LF/HF and self-confidence score of CSAI-2 between winner and loser within PG. While PG and RG showed similar kinematic performance, they showed different LF/HF. The tonic states derived from cardiac activity indicated that a higher skilled level was associated with increased LF. Increased LF is associated with increased automaticity and decreased attention demands, which means that increased mental workload reduces LF. For PG, it may reveal that psychological factor is one of the important factors for the better performance during competition. Further studies are necessary to clarify psychological factors of putting by using different measurement techniques such as galvanic skin response.

  J. R Gayen , K Zhang , S. P RamachandraRao , M Mahata , Y Chen , H. S Kim , R. K Naviaux , K Sharma , S. K Mahata and D. T. O'Connor
  Background—

Oxidative stress, an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) outstripping antioxidant defense mechanisms, occurs in cardiovascular pathologies, including hypertension. In the present study, we used biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches to explore the role of derangements of catecholamines, ROS, and the endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) in the development of a hyperadrenergic model of hereditary hypertension: targeted ablation (knockout [KO]) of chromogranin A (Chga) in the mouse.

Methods and Results—

Homozygous (–/–) Chga gene knockout (KO) mice were compared with wild-type (WT, +/+) control mice. In the KO mouse, elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were accompanied by not only elevated catecholamine (norepinephrine and epinephrine) concentrations but also increased ROS (H2O2) and isoprostane (an index of lipid peroxidation), as well as depletion of NO. Renal transcript analyses implicated changes in Nox1/2, Xo/Xdh, and Sod1,2 mRNAs in ROS elevation by the KO state. KO alterations in blood pressure, catecholamines, H2O2, isoprostane, and NO could be abrogated or even normalized (rescued) by either sympathetic outflow inhibition (with clonidine) or NADPH oxidase inhibition (with apocynin). In cultured renal podocytes, H2O2 production was substantially augmented by epinephrine (probably through β2-adrenergic receptors) and modestly diminished by norepinephrine (probably through 1-adrenergic receptors).

Conclusions—

ROS appear to play a necessary role in the development of hyperadrenergic hypertension in this model, in a process mechanistically linking elevated blood pressure with catecholamine excess, renal transcriptional responses, ROS elevation, lipid peroxidation, and NO depletion. Some of the changes appear to be dependent on transcription, whereas others are immediate. The cycle could be disrupted by inhibition of either sympathetic outflow or NADPH oxidase. Because common genetic variation at the human CHGA locus alters BP, the results have implications for antihypertensive treatment as well as prevention of target-organ consequences of the disease. The results document novel pathophysiological links between the adrenergic system and oxidative stress and suggest new strategies to probe the role and actions of ROS within this setting.

  B. K Koo , K Waseda , H. J Kang , H. S Kim , C. W Nam , S. H Hur , J. S Kim , D Choi , Y Jang , J. Y Hahn , H. C Gwon , M. H Yoon , S. J Tahk , W. Y Chung , Y. S Cho , D. J Choi , T Hasegawa , T Kataoka , S. J Oh , Y Honda , P. J Fitzgerald and W. F. Fearon
 

Background— We sought to investigate the mechanism of geometric changes after main branch (MB) stent implantation and to identify the predictors of functionally significant "jailed" side branch (SB) lesions.

Methods and Results— Seventy-seven patients with bifurcation lesions were prospectively enrolled from 8 centers. MB intravascular ultrasound was performed before and after MB stent implantation, and fractional flow reserve was measured in the jailed SB. The vessel volume index of both the proximal and distal MB was increased after stent implantation. The plaque volume index decreased in the proximal MB (9.1±3.0 to 8.4±2.4 mm3/mm, P=0.001), implicating plaque shift, but not in the distal MB (5.4±1.8 to 5.3±1.7 mm3/mm, P=0.227), implicating carina shifting to account for the change in vessel size (N=56). The mean SB fractional flow reserve was 0.71±0.20 (N=68) and 43% of the lesions were functionally significant. Binary logistic-regression analysis revealed that preintervention % diameter stenosis of the SB (odds ratio=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09) and the MB minimum lumen diameter located distal to the SB ostium (odds ratio=3.86; 95% CI, 1.03 to 14.43) were independent predictors of functionally significant SB jailing. In patients with ≥75% stenosis and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow in the SB, no difference in poststent angiographic and intravascular ultrasound parameters was found between SB lesions with and without functional significance.

Conclusions— Both plaque shift from the MB and carina shift contribute to the creation/aggravation of an SB ostial lesion after MB stent implantation. Anatomic evaluation does not reliably predict the functional significance of a jailed SB stenosis.

Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00553670.

  C. W Chia , O. D Carlson , W Kim , Y. K Shin , C. P Charles , H. S Kim , D. L Melvin and J. M. Egan
  OBJECTIVE

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), unlike glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, lacks glucose-lowering properties in patients with type 2 diabetes. We designed this study to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Twenty-two insulin-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes were given either synthetic human GIP (20 ng · kg–1 · min–1) or placebo (normal saline) over 180 min, starting with the first bite of a mixed meal (plus 1 g of acetaminophen) on two separate occasions. Frequent blood samples were obtained over 6 h to determine plasma GIP, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, glucagon, resistin, and acetaminophen levels.

RESULTS

Compared with placebo, GIP induced an early postprandial increase in insulin levels. Intriguingly, GIP also induced an early postprandial augmentation in glucagon, a significant elevation in late postprandial glucose, and a decrease in late postprandial GLP-1 levels. Resistin and acetaminophen levels were comparable in both interventions. By immunocytochemistry, GIP receptors were present on human and mouse -cells. In TC1 cell line, GIP induced an increase in intracellular cAMP and glucagon secretion.

CONCLUSIONS

GIP, given to achieve supraphysiological plasma levels, still had an early, short-lived insulinotropic effect in type 2 diabetes. However, with a concomitant increase in glucagon, the glucose-lowering effect was lost. GIP infusion further worsened hyperglycemia postprandially, most likely through its suppressive effect on GLP-1. These findings make it unlikely that GIP or GIP receptor agonists will be useful in treating the hyperglycemia of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  S. J Lee , S. S Lee , H. J Jung , H. S Kim , S. J Park , C. W Yeo and J. G. Shin
 

Our objectives were to identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in a Korean population, to compare the allele frequencies with those of other ethnic groups, and to evaluate variant-induced functional variations in dextromethorphan (DM) metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Thirty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2D6 were identified by direct DNA sequencing in 51 Koreans. An extended set of 707 subjects were screened for the identified variants. A group of 202 healthy subjects was subjected to phenotypic analysis on DM metabolism. CYP2D6*10 was found to be the most frequent allele (45.6%), followed by CYP2D6*1 (32.3%), *2 (9.9%), *5 (5.6%), *41 (2.2%), *49 (1.4%), and some other rare alleles (<1%). The newly identified E418K and S183Stop were assigned as CYP2D6*52 and CYP2D6*60, respectively, by the Human P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee. Individuals having the CYP2D6*10/*49 genotype (n = 5) exhibited a significant decrease in CYP2D6 metabolic activity compared with those with the CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype (n = 31) (P < 0.019). Variations in CYP2D6 protein levels in liver tissues (n = 49) were observed with CYP2D6 genotypes, and correlation between the CYP2D6 protein content and the activity was significant (r2 = 0.7). Given the importance of CYP2D6 in drug metabolism, subjects with the CYP2D6*10/*49 genotype may benefit from genotype analysis to achieve optimal drug therapy.

  S. J Lee , S. S Lee , H. J Jung , H. S Kim , S. J Park , C. W Yeo and J. G. Shin
 

Our objectives were to identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in a Korean population, to compare the allele frequencies with those of other ethnic groups, and to evaluate variant-induced functional variations in dextromethorphan (DM) metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Thirty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2D6 were identified by direct DNA sequencing in 51 Koreans. An extended set of 707 subjects were screened for the identified variants. A group of 202 healthy subjects was subjected to phenotypic analysis on DM metabolism. CYP2D6*10 was found to be the most frequent allele (45.6%), followed by CYP2D6*1 (32.3%), *2 (9.9%), *5 (5.6%), *41 (2.2%), *49 (1.4%), and some other rare alleles (<1%). The newly identified E418K and S183Stop were assigned as CYP2D6*52 and CYP2D6*60, respectively, by the Human P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee. Individuals having the CYP2D6*10/*49 genotype (n = 5) exhibited a significant decrease in CYP2D6 metabolic activity compared with those with the CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype (n = 31) (P < 0.019). Variations in CYP2D6 protein levels in liver tissues (n = 49) were observed with CYP2D6 genotypes, and correlation between the CYP2D6 protein content and the activity was significant (r2 = 0.7). Given the importance of CYP2D6 in drug metabolism, subjects with the CYP2D6*10/*49 genotype may benefit from genotype analysis to achieve optimal drug therapy.

  I Lee , S. S Ajay , J. I Yook , H. S Kim , S. H Hong , N. H Kim , S. M Dhanasekaran , A. M Chinnaiyan and B. D. Athey
 

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNAs through the 3'-UTR, which interacts mainly with the 5'-end of miRNA in animals. Here we identify many endogenous motifs within human 5'-UTRs specific to the 3'-ends of miRNAs. The 3'-end of conserved miRNAs in particular has significant interaction sites in the human-enriched, less conserved 5'-UTR miRNA motifs, while human-specific miRNAs have significant interaction sites only in the conserved 5'-UTR motifs, implying both miRNA and 5'-UTR are actively evolving in response to each other. Additionally, many miRNAs with their 3'-end interaction sites in the 5'-UTRs turn out to simultaneously contain 5'-end interaction sites in the 3'-UTRs. Based on these findings we demonstrate combinatory interactions between a single miRNA and both end regions of an mRNA using model systems. We further show that genes exhibiting large-scale protein changes due to miRNA overexpression or deletion contain both UTR interaction sites predicted. We provide the predicted targets of this new miRNA target class, miBridge, as an efficient way to screen potential targets, especially for nonconserved miRNAs, since the target search space is reduced by an order of magnitude compared with the 3'-UTR alone. Efficacy is confirmed by showing SEC24D regulation with hsa-miR-605, a miRNA identified only in primate, opening the door to the study of nonconserved miRNAs. Finally, miRNAs (and associated proteins) involved in this new targeting class may prevent 40S ribosome scanning through the 5'-UTR and keep it from reaching the start-codon, preventing 60S association.

  S Maegawa , G Hinkal , H. S Kim , L Shen , L Zhang , J Zhang , N Zhang , S Liang , L. A Donehower and J. P. J. Issa
 

Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in cancer is associated with silencing of tumor-suppressor genes, and age-dependent hypermethylation in normal appearing mucosa may be a risk factor for human colon cancer. It is not known whether this age-related DNA methylation phenomenon is specific to human tissues. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of promoter regions in aging mouse intestine using methylated CpG island amplification in combination with microarray analysis. By comparing C57BL/6 mice at 3-mo-old versus 35-mo-old for 3627 detectable autosomal genes, we found 774 (21%) that showed increased methylation and 466 (13%) that showed decreased methylation. We used pyrosequencing to quantitatively validate the microarray data and confirmed linear age-related methylation changes for all 12 genomic regions examined. We then examined 11 changed genomic loci for age-related methylation in other tissues. Of these, three of 11 showed similar changes in lung, seven of 11 changed in liver, and six of 11 changed in spleen, though to a lower degree than the changes seen in colon. There was partial conservation between age-related hypermethylation in human and mouse intestines, and Polycomb targets in embryonic stem cells were enriched among the hypermethylated genes. Our findings demonstrate a surprisingly high rate of hyper- and hypomethylation as a function of age in normal mouse small intestine tissues and a strong tissue-specificity to the process. We conclude that epigenetic deregulation is a common feature of aging in mammals.

  J. W Lee , H. D Han , M. M. K Shahzad , S. W Kim , L. S Mangala , A. M Nick , C Lu , R. R Langley , R Schmandt , H. S Kim , S Mao , J Gooya , C Fazenbaker , D Jackson , D. A Tice , C. N Landen , R. L Coleman and A. K. Sood
  Background

EphA2 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer but is absent or expressed at low levels in normal epithelial tissues. We investigated whether a novel immunoconjugate containing an anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1) linked to a chemotherapeutic agent (monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine [MMAF]) through a noncleavable linker maleimidocaproyl (mc) had antitumor activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models.

Methods

Specificity of 1C1-mcMMAF was examined in EphA2-positive HeyA8 and EphA2-negative SKMel28 ovarian cancer cells by antibody binding and internalization assays. Controls were phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 1C1, or control IgG-mcMMAF. Viability and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models (10 mice per group). Antitumor activities were tested in the HeyA8-luc and SKOV3ip1 orthotopic mouse models of ovarian cancer. Endothelial cells were identified by use of immunohistochemistry and anti-CD31 antibodies. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate specifically bound to EphA2-positive HeyA8 cells but not to EphA2-negative cells and was internalized by HeyA8 cells. Treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF decreased the viability of HeyA8-luc cells in an EphA2-specific manner. In orthotopic mouse models, treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF inhibited tumor growth by 85%–98% compared with that in control mice (eg, for weight of HeyA8 tumors, 1C1-mcMMAF = 0.05 g and control = 1.03 g; difference = 0.98 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40 to 1.58 g; P = .001). Even in bulkier disease models with HeyA8-luc cells, 1C1-mcMMAF treatment, compared with control treatment, caused regression of established tumors and increased survival of the mice (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 60.6 days vs 29.4 days; difference = 31.2 days, 95% CI = 27.6 to 31.2 days; P = .001). The antitumor effects of 1C1-mcMMAF therapy, in SKOV3ip1 tumors, for example, were statistically significantly related to decreased proliferation (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 44.1% vs 55.8% proliferating cells; difference = 11.7%, 95% CI = 2.45% to 20.9%; P = .01) and increased apoptosis of tumor cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 8.6% vs 0.9% apoptotic cells; difference = 7.7%, 95% CI = 3.8% to 11.7%; P < .001) and of mouse endothelial cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean 2.8% vs 0.4% apoptotic endothelial cells; difference = 2.4%, 95% CI = 1.4% to 4.6%; P = .034).

Conclusion

The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate had antitumor activity in preclinical models of ovarian carcinoma.

  Y. S Tsai , P. J Tsai , M. J Jiang , T. Y Chou , A Pendse , H. S Kim and N. Maeda
 

Mutations and polymorphisms in PPARG have been linked to adiposity and partial lipodystrophy in humans. However, how disturbances in PPARG lead to depot-specific effects on adipose tissue, as shown by the characteristic aberrant fat distribution in patients, remains unclear. By manipulating the 3'-untranslated region of the Pparg gene, we have generated mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression ranging from 25% to 100% normal. Basal levels of PPAR transcripts between 50% and approximately 100% had no significant effect on body weight, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, mice with 25% normal PPAR expression exhibited reduced body weight and total fat mass, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Interestingly, fat mass was selectively reduced in perigonadal depot without significant changes in inguinal and other depots. Expression of adipogenic factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein- and some other metabolic genes containing peroxisome proliferator response element were reduced in a perigonadal depot-specific fashion. This was further associated with depot-specific reduction in the expression of adipokines, increased expression of TNF, and increased ectopic lipid deposition in muscles. Together, these results underscore the differential sensitivity of the individual fat depots on PPAR availability as an underlying mechanism of partial lipodystrophy.

  H. S Kim and I. K. Lim
 

Expression of p21Sdi1 downstream of p53 is essential for induction of cellular senescence, although cancer cell senescence can also occur in the p53 null condition. We report herein that senescence-associated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (SA-pErk1/2) enhanced p21Sdi1 transcription by phosphorylating Sp1 on Ser59 downstream of protein kinase C (PKC) . Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was increased in cellular senescence, significantly activated both PKC and PKCβI. However, PKC, but not PKCβI, regulated ROS generation and cell proliferation in senescent cells along with activation of cdk2, proven by siRNAs. PKC-siRNA also reduced SA-pErk1/2 expression in old human diploid fibroblast cells, accompanied with changes of senescence phenotypes to young cell-like. Regulation of SA-pErk1/2 was also confirmed by using catalytically active PKC and its DN-mutant construct. These findings strongly suggest a new pathway to regulate senescence phenotypes by ROS via Sp1 phosphorylation between PKC and SA-pErk1/2: employing GST-Sp1 mutants and MEK inhibitor analyses, we found that SA-pErk1/2 regulated Sp1 phosphorylation on the Ser59 residue in vivo, but not threonine, in cellular senescence, which regulated transcription of p21Sdi1 expression. In summary, PKC, which was activated in senescent cells by ROS strongly activated Erk1/2, and the SA-pErk1/2 in turn phosphorylated Sp1 on Ser59. Sp1-enhanced transcription of p21Sdi1 resulted in regulation of cellular senescence in primary human diploid fibroblast cells.

  J. R Kim , H. J Kee , J. Y Kim , H Joung , K. I Nam , G. H Eom , N Choe , H. S Kim , J. C Kim , H Kook , S. B Seo and H. Kook
 

Skeletal muscle differentiation is well regulated by a series of transcription factors. We reported previously that enhancer of polycomb1 (Epc1), a chromatin protein, can modulate skeletal muscle differentiation, although the mechanisms of this action have yet to be defined. Here we report that Epc1 recruits both serum response factor (SRF) and p300 to induce skeletal muscle differentiation. Epc1 interacted physically with SRF. Transfection of Epc1 to myoblast cells potentiated the SRF-induced expression of skeletal muscle-specific genes as well as multinucleation. Proximal CArG box in the skeletal -actin promoter was responsible for the synergistic activation of the promoter-luciferase. Epc1 knockdown caused a decrease in the acetylation of histones associated with serum response element (SRE) of the skeletal -actin promoter. The Epc1·SRF complex bound to the SRE, and the knockdown of Epc1 resulted in a decrease in SRF binding to the skeletal -actin promoter. Epc1 recruited histone acetyltransferase activity, which was potentiated by cotransfection with p300 but abolished by si-p300. Epc1 directly bound to p300 in myoblast cells. Epc1+/– mice showed distortion of skeletal -actin, and the isolated myoblasts from the mice had impaired muscle differentiation. These results suggest that Epc1 is required for skeletal muscle differentiation by recruiting both SRF and p300 to the SRE of muscle-specific gene promoters.

  K Uk Hong , H. J Kim , H. S Kim , Y. S Seong , K. M Hong , C. D Bae and J. Park
 

During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis.

  R Tachdjian , C Mathias , S Al Khatib , P. J Bryce , H. S Kim , F Blaeser , B. D O'Connor , D Rzymkiewicz , A Chen , M. J Holtzman , G. K Hershey , H Garn , H Harb , H Renz , H. C Oettgen and T. A. Chatila
 

Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor chain (IL-4R) have been linked to asthma incidence and severity, but a causal relationship has remained uncertain. In particular, a glutamine to arginine substitution at position 576 (Q576R) of IL-4R has been associated with severe asthma, especially in African Americans. We show that mice carrying the Q576R polymorphism exhibited intense allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. The Q576R polymorphism did not affect proximal signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 activation, but synergized with STAT6 in a gene target– and tissue-specific manner to mediate heightened expression of a subset of IL-4– and IL-13–responsive genes involved in allergic inflammation. Our findings indicate that the Q576R polymorphism directly promotes asthma in carrier populations by selectively augmenting IL-4R–dependent signaling.

 
 
 
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