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Articles by H. M Lee
Total Records ( 3 ) for H. M Lee
  C. W Lee , T. H Kim , H. M Lee , S. H Lee , J. H Yoo , Y. S Kim and S. H. Lee

Objectives  To investigate the expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory human sinus mucosa and to evaluate their roles in chronic sinusitis.

Design  A controlled, prospective study.

Setting  A tertiary academic institution.

Patients  Normal sinus mucosa was obtained from the ethmoid sinus during surgery in 30 patients with blowout fractures. Inflammatory sinus mucosa was obtained from 30 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic polypoid sinusitis.

Interventions  Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blotting.

Main Outcome Measures  Expression levels and distribution patterns of elafin and cystatin C in normal and inflammatory mucosa.

Results  Expression of elafin and cystatin C messenger RNAs and proteins analyzed by means of reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot was detected in all normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa tested. Their expression levels were increased in inflammatory vs normal mucosa. Elafin in normal and inflammatory sinus mucosa was distinctly expressed in goblet cells, which are increased in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Elafin in submucosal glands was usually weak in staining intensity, except for a few scattered submucosal glands showing moderate intensity in inflammatory sinus mucosa. Cystatin C was also localized in goblet cells and submucosal glands in normal and inflammatory mucosa. Staining intensity was increased more in inflammatory vs normal sinus mucosa.

Conclusion  Elafin and cystatin C may play an important role in the protection of normal sinus mucosa and further in regulation of the inflammatory condition in chronic sinusitis.

  J. A Jung , B. M Choi , S. H Cho , S. M Choe , J. L Ghim , H. M Lee , Y. J Roh and G. J. Noh

The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of microemulsion propofol, AquafolTM (Daewon Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea).


In total, 288 patients were randomized to receive 1% AquafolTM or 1% Diprivan® (AstraZeneca, London, UK) (n=144, respectively). A 30 mg test dose of propofol was administered i.v. over 2 s for assessing injection pain. Subsequently, a bolus of propofol 2 mg kg–1 (–30 mg) was administered. Anaesthesia was maintained with a variable rate infusion of propofol and a target-controlled infusion of remifentanil. Mean infusion rates of both formulations and times to loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC) were recorded. Adverse events and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics were evaluated.


Mean infusion rate of AquafolTM was not statistically different from that of Diprivan® (median: 6.2 vs 6.3 mg kg–1 h–1). Times to LOC and ROC were slightly prolonged in AquafolTM (median: 21 vs 18 s, 12.3 vs 10.8 min). AquafolTM showed similar incidence of adverse events to Diprivan®. AquafolTM (vs Diprivan®) caused more severe (median VAS: 72.0 vs 11.5 mm) and frequent (81.9 vs 29.2%) injection pain. The dose-normalized AUClast of AquafolTM and Diprivan® was 0.71 (0.19) and 0.74 (0.20) min litre–1. The V1 of both formulations were proportional to lean body mass. Sex was a significant covariate for k12 and Ce50 of AquafolTM, and for ke0 of Diprivan®.


AquafolTM was as effective and safe as Diprivan®, but caused more severe and frequent injection pain. AquafolTM demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics to Diprivan®.

  H. M Lee , D Kerr , D O'H Ici and A. M. Kelly

‘Normal’ range for cardiac troponin I (TnI) has changed with more sensitive tests, but the validity of low-level elevations is contentious. We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with an initial TnI level 1–5 times the upper limit of normal.


Retrospective study of patients assessed for ACS with initial TnI level between 0.05–0.19 ng/ml. Data collected included demographics, clinical data, TnI levels and outcome. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had a serial TnI rise consistent with ACS.


72 patients were studied; median age 71, median TIMI score 3, 66.7% male. 35 patients (48.6%) had a TnI rise consistent with ACS.


Approximately half of patients with initial TnI between 0.05–0.19ng/ml had a TnI rise consistent with ACS. An initial TnI in this range is not, of itself, indicative of ACS. Clinical decision-making should be guided by clinical features and serial TnI measurement.

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