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Articles by H. M Krumholz
Total Records ( 6 ) for H. M Krumholz
  P. S Chan , G Nichol , H. M Krumholz , J. A Spertus , B. K Nallamothu and for the American Heart Association National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (NRCPR) Invest

Background  Delays to defibrillation are associated with worse survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest, but the degree to which hospitals vary in defibrillation response times and hospital predictors of delays remain unknown.

Methods  Using hierarchical models, we evaluated hospital variation in rates of delayed defibrillation (>2 minutes) and its impact on survival among 7479 adult inpatients with cardiac arrests at 200 hospitals within the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

Results  Adjusted rates of delayed defibrillation varied substantially among hospitals (range, 2.4%-50.9%), with hospital-level effects accounting for a significant amount of the total variation in defibrillation delays after adjusting for patient factors. We found a 46% greater odds of patients with identical covariates getting delayed defibrillation at one randomly selected hospital compared with another. Among traditional hospital factors evaluated, however, only bed volume (reference category: <200 beds; 200-499 beds: odds ratio [OR], 0.62 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.48-0.80]; ≥500 beds: OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.53-1.04]) and arrest location (reference category: intensive care unit; telemetry unit: OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.65-2.22]; nonmonitored unit: OR, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.61-2.24]) were associated with differences in rates of delayed defibrillation. Wide variation also existed in adjusted hospital rates of survival to discharge (range, 5.3%-49.6%), with higher survival among hospitals in the top-performing quartile for defibrillation time (compared with the bottom quartile: OR for top quartile, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.11-1.77]).

Conclusions  Rates of delayed defibrillation vary widely among hospitals but are largely unexplained by traditional hospital factors. Given its association with improved survival, future research is needed to better understand best practices in the delivery of defibrillation at top-performing hospitals.

  R Fazel , H. M Krumholz , E. R Bates , W. J French , P. D Frederick , B. K Nallamothu and for the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI) Investigators

Background— Many hospitals with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability also use fibrinolytic therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but factors influencing the choice of reperfusion strategy at these hospitals are poorly understood. We examined clinical and system-related factors associated with choice of reperfusion strategy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at PCI-capable hospitals.

Methods and Results— We analyzed patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who presented to PCI-capable hospitals between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006, in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between choice of reperfusion strategy and patient-, hospital-, and system-related factors. We identified 25 579 patients who received primary PCI and 14 332 patients who received fibrinolytic therapy at 444 PCI-capable hospitals. Use of reperfusion strategies varied widely across hospitals, although primary PCI use increased over the study period. Among the key clinical factors that favored primary PCI, cardiogenic shock and delayed presentation were associated with greater use of primary PCI (adjusted odds ratios 2.14 [95% confidence interval 1.72 to 2.66] and 1.18 [95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.27], respectively), whereas a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score ≥5 was not. In contrast, female gender, advanced age, and nonwhite race, all risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage after fibrinolytic therapy, were not associated with increased use of primary PCI. Off-hours presentation had the strongest association overall, with an 70% lower likelihood of patients undergoing primary PCI (adjusted odds ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 0.29).

Conclusions— Use of primary PCI, although increasing over recent years, is not universal at PCI-capable hospitals, and optimization of its use at such hospitals represents a potential opportunity to improve outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  K. G Smolderen , J. A Spertus , K. J Reid , D. M Buchanan , H. M Krumholz , J Denollet , V Vaccarino and P. S. Chan

Background— Among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), depression is both common and underrecognized. The association of different manifestations of depression, somatic and cognitive, with depression recognition and long-term prognosis is poorly understood.

Methods and Results— Depression was confirmed in 481 AMI patients enrolled from 21 sites during their index hospitalization with a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10. Within the PHQ-9, separate somatic and cognitive symptom scores were derived, and the independent association between these domains and the clinical recognition of depression, as documented in the medical records, was evaluated. In a separate multisite AMI registry of 2347 patients, the association between somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms and 4-year all-cause mortality and 1-year all-cause rehospitalization was evaluated. Depression was clinically recognized in 29% (n=140) of patients. Cognitive depressive symptoms (relative risk per SD increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.26; P=0.01) were independently associated with depression recognition, whereas the association for somatic symptoms and recognition (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.26; P=0.66) was not significant. However, unadjusted Cox regression analyses found that only somatic depressive symptoms were associated with 4-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.39) or 1-year rehospitalization (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.33), whereas cognitive manifestations were not (HR for mortality, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; HR for rehospitalization, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11). After multivariable adjustment, the association between somatic symptoms and rehospitalization persisted (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27; P=0.01) but was attenuated for mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.21; P=0.30).

Conclusions— Depression after AMI was recognized in fewer than 1 in 3 patients. Although cognitive symptoms were associated with recognition of depression, somatic symptoms were associated with long-term outcomes. Comprehensive screening and treatment of both somatic and cognitive symptoms may be necessary to optimize depression recognition and treatment in AMI patients.

  H. M Krumholz , A. R Merrill , E. M Schone , G. C Schreiner , J Chen , E. H Bradley , Y Wang , Z Lin , B. M Straube , M. T Rapp , S. L. T Normand and E. E. Drye

Background— In 2009, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is publicly reporting hospital-level risk-standardized 30-day mortality and readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We provide patterns of hospital performance, based on these measures.

Methods and Results— We calculated the 30-day mortality and readmission rates for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages 65 years or older with a primary diagnosis of AMI or HF, discharged between July 2005 and June 2008. We compared weighted risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates across Hospital Referral Regions and hospital structural characteristics. The median 30-day mortality rate was 16.6% for AMI (range, 10.9% to 24.9%; 25th to 75th percentile, 15.8% to 17.4%; 10th to 90th percentile, 14.7% to 18.4%) and 11.1% for HF (range, 6.6% to 19.8%; 25th to 75th percentile, 10.3% to 12.0%; 10th to 90th percentile, 9.4% to 13.1%). The median 30-day readmission rate was 19.9% for AMI (range, 15.3% to 29.4%; 25th to 75th percentile, 19.5% to 20.4%; 10th to 90th percentile, 18.8% to 21.1%) and 24.4% for HF (range, 15.9% to 34.4%; 25th to 75th percentile, 23.4% to 25.6%; 10th to 90th percentile, 22.3% to 27.0%). We observed geographic differences in performance across the country. Although there were some differences in average performance by hospital characteristics, there were high and low hospital performers among all types of hospitals.

Conclusions— In a recent 3-year period, 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates for AMI and HF varied among hospitals and across the country. The readmission rates were particularly high.

  K. J Lipska , Y Wang , M Kosiborod , F. A Masoudi , E. P Havranek , H. M Krumholz and S. E. Inzucchi

Background— Patients with diabetes are frequently admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on antihyperglycemic agents but may be discharged without glucose-lowering therapy. We examined the frequency of this practice and evaluated the associated outcomes of readmission and mortality.

Methods and Results— We conducted a retrospective study of 24 953 Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes discharged after hospitalization for AMI. We examined the frequency of discontinuation of antihyperglycemic agents on discharge among those patients admitted on a diabetic regimen. The independent association between discharge on versus off antihyperglycemic therapy and outcomes at 1 year was assessed in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for patient, physician, and hospital variables. The primary outcome was time to death within 1 year of discharge; secondary outcomes were time to first rehospitalization within 1 year for AMI, heart failure, and all causes. There were 8751 patients admitted on at least 1 antihyperglycemic agent who met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these, 7581 (86.6%) were discharged on antihyperglycemic therapy and 1170 (13.4%) were discharged off antihyperglycemic therapy. After multivariable analysis, as compared with those whose diabetes therapy was continued at discharge, patients who were not prescribed a glucose-lowering agent had higher 1-year mortality rate (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.45). Readmission rates did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.03).

Conclusions— In older patients with diabetes after AMI, discontinuation of antihyperglycemic therapy is common and associated with higher mortality rates. The reasons behind this practice as well as the specific effects of hyperglycemia after AMI merit further study.

  S. L Hummel , N. P Pauli , H. M Krumholz , Y Wang , J Chen , S. L. T Normand and B. K. Nallamothu

Background— Heart transplant centers are generally considered "centers of excellence" for heart failure care. However, their overall performance has not previously been evaluated in a broad population of elderly patients with heart failure, many of whom are not transplant candidates.

Methods and Results— We identified >1 million elderly Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for heart failure between 2004 and 2006 at >4500 hospitals. We calculated 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios as well as 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates and standardized readmission ratios at heart transplant centers and non–heart transplant hospitals using risk-standardization models that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services uses for public reporting. The 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates were lower at heart transplant centers than non–heart transplant hospitals nationally (10.6% versus 11.5%, P<0.001) but were similar at peer institutions offering coronary artery bypass grafting within the same geographical region (10.6% versus 10.6%, P=0.96). The mean standardized mortality ratio for heart transplant centers was 0.9 (SD, 0.1; range, 0.7 to 1.3). No differences were noted in 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates between heart transplant centers and non–heart transplant hospitals nationally (23.6% versus 23.8%, P=0.55). The mean standardized readmission ratio for heart transplant centers was 1.0 (SD, 0.1; range, 0.8 to 1.2).

Conclusions— In elderly Medicare patients with heart failure, heart transplant centers have lower 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates than non–heart transplant hospitals nationally; however, this difference is not present in comparison with peer institutions or for 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates.

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