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Articles by H. Kermanshahi
Total Records ( 25 ) for H. Kermanshahi
  M. Rezaei , H. Nassiri Moghaddam , J. Pour Reza and H. Kermanshahi
  In a 2x3 factorial arrangement, the effects of dietary protein and lysine levels on performance and carcass characteristics of Ross male broiler chickens from 1 to 3 weeks and 4 to 6 weeks of age were tested. Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of L-lysine.HCl in starter and grower period (0.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg) and two levels of protein (208.4, 178.4 in starter and 181.2, 161.2 g/kg in grower period) with 12.12 MJ AME/kg diet. Reducing dietary protein decreased weight gain in starter, grower and total period up to 6.0, 4.6 and 5.6% respectively (P<0.05). It also decreased feed consumption in starter period (P<0.05). Decreasing dietary protein had no significant effect on gain to feed ratio and breast meat yield, but increased abdominal fat percentage significantly (P<0.05). Increasing dietary lysine increased feed consumption in starter and weight gain, feed to gain ratio in grower and total period of the experiment (P<0.05). It also increased breast meat yield and percentage (P<0.05). N excretion reduced significantly by decreasing dietary protein (P<0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on mortality.
  S. Salari , H. Kermanshahi and H. Nasiri Moghaddam
  An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Sodium Bentonite (SB) and comparison of feed forms (pellet vs mash) on broiler performance. 320 day-old Cobb strain male broiler chickens were allocated to 8 experimental diets with 4*2 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Treatments were 0, 1, 2 and 3 percent of SB and two forms of diets (pellet and mash). At 49 days of age, chickens that fed pelleted diets, consumed more feeds and showed better weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P< 0.05). Pelleting the diets also significantly increased weight of abdominal fat and decreased thigh percentage (P< 0.05). Chickens fed diets containing 1-2 % SB consumed more feed, had more weight gain and less feed conversion ratio (P< 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, it seems that pelleting the diets and 1-2% of SB, improves performance of broiler chickens.
  H. Kermanshahi and A. Riasi
  A study was conducted to evaluate dried berberry fruit (DBF) and enzyme on some blood parameters of laying hens. In a 5 * 2 completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement and 4 blocks as replicate, 5 levels of DBF (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2%) and 2 levels of NSP-degrading enzyme (0.0, and 0.05%) in wheat-soybean based diets were tested in 480, 100-week old laying hens for 4 weeks. Some blood parameters of laying hens including hematocrit value, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol were recorded at 104 weeks of age. DBF significantly (P< 0.05) changed hematocrit value and HDL-cholesterol (with or without enzyme), and LDL-cholesterol (with enzyme). It was concluded that use of DBF as a phytochemical compound may improve some of the blood parameters and possibly egg components that are important for human health.
  H. Kermanshahi and A. Riasi
  In order to study the effect of turmeric rhizome powder (TU) and enzyme in some blood parameters of laying hens, an in vivo study was conducted. In a 5 * 2 completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement, 5 levels of TU (0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 %) and 2 levels of enzyme (0.0, and 0.05%) with 4 blocks (replicate) , 480, 100-week old laying hens for 4 weeks fed wheat-soybean meal based diets. Some serum blood parameters of laying hens including hematocrit value, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol were recorded at 104 weeks of age. Increasing dietary levels of TU with or without a dietary enzyme significantly decreased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). TU without enzyme significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of TU improves some of good indices of serum blood components in laying hens and might be used as an ingredient in laying hen diets for manipulating egg composition.
  H. Kermanshahi and H. Rostami
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding levels of dried whey powder (DW) to practical-type diets on the performance and cecal micro organism of broilers. DW was used in isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets at levels of 0, 2, 4 and 8 percent and fed from 1-49 days of age. Samples of cecal contents at 7, 14 and 35th days of age were collected for counting total micro organism, coliforms and salmonella in suspension of cecal contents. Body weight gain of chickens fed 2 to 8 percent DW was improved at 49 days of age. Adding DW to the diets from 2 to 8 percent, improved feed to gain ratio at 21-42 and 42-49 days of age. Carcass weight in chickens received 2 and 4 percent DW was maximum (p< 0.05) at 49 days of age. Gastrointestinal tract weight of chickens fed DW was significantly increased (p< 0.05) when compared to control group. Total counts and coliforms of cecal contents significantly increased in broilers received DW during 0–14 days of age (p< 0.05). No salmonella colony was isolated from the samples. Findings of the present study indicate that 2-4 percent DW in the diet of broilers had beneficial effects on performance. Changes in cecal micro flora indicated an environment more hostile to salmonella establishment from 0-21 days of age.
  M.D. Shakouri , H. Kermanshahi and M. Mohsenzadeh
  An experiment was conducted with broiler chickens to study the effect of different non starch polysaccharides; NSPs (cellulose, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC) on growth performance and intestinal microflora. 96 day-old male chickens were allocated to 4 experimental diets (a semi purified control diet or diets containing 3% of above mentioned NSPs) in a completely randomized design for two weeks. On day 10, one bird from each replicate was slaughtered to remove the intestinal contents for microbial analyses. According to the results, total feed intake over 2 weeks was increased (P< 0.0001) as a result of cellulose addition to the diet. The final body weight and also feed conversion ratio of chickens on this diet were improved (P< 0.0001). Growth performance parameters were dramatically declined by CMC (P< 0.0001). Pectin significantly (P< 0.001) increased the number of total anaerobes in the duodenum. CMC resulted in higher caecal number of Enterobacteriaceae (P< 0.001). Compared to the control diet, all NSPs decreased the number of lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal segments. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that different NSPs are acted differently on performance and intestinal microflora when imposed to broiler chickens.
  H. Kermanshahi and A.R. Abbasi Pour
  In a completely randomized design with 3*3 factorial arrangements and 4 replicates, 432 day-old Cobb male broiler chickens were used to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal with local grown rapeseed meal in the diet of broiler chickens with or without a dietary NSP degrading enzyme. The rapeseed meal was replaced with soybean meal at the levels of 0 (control), 15 and 30 percent for 6 weeks. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0 (control), 0.025% and 0.050%. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were adversely affected by added levels of rapeseed meal during the starter (0-21 d), grower (21-42 d) and overall feeding periods (P< 0.0001). Adding 0.025% enzyme significantly (0.004) improved body weight gain at starter period. The interactions between rapeseed and enzyme for body weight gain were significant in all periods (P< 0.001). Feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by adding enzyme into the diets. Added levels of rapeseed meal significantly increased the weights of liver, proventriculus, gizzard (P< 0.0001) and abdominal fat pad (P< 0.028). Adding levels of rapeseed meal were also significantly increased the concentration of serum triiodothyronine (T3) at 42 days of age (P< 0.002) while adding enzyme into the diets had no significant effect among treatments . Therefore under the conditions of this study, use of lower levels of rapeseed meal might be more practical in broiler diets. For higher levels of replacement, further investigations are required.
  H. Kermanshahi and A. Hadavi
  In order to study the effect of four levels of extra calcium carbonate as limestone (0, 1, 2 and 3 g/hen/day, laying hen size, 3-4 mm) in a finished standard diets of laying hens, one hour before starting dark period, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens, 85 weeks of age (after force molting) were selected and tested in a completely randomized block design with four treatments and four replicates. In a period of 8 weeks, feed intake (FI), egg weigh (EW), the number of cracked eggs (CE), the number of broken eggs (BE) and hen day egg production (HDEP) recorded daily. Eggshell quality including eggshell weight (ESW) and eggshell thickness (EST) were recorded every two weeks. CE, BE, ESW and EST were significantly improved by adding extra levels of calcium carbonate into the finished diets (P< 0.05). The highest incidence of CE and BE were seen in treatment one (control diet with no added extra calcium carbonate) and the lowest incidence of these traits were seen in treatment four (3 g/hen/day extra calcium carbonate). The best and the worst quality of ESW and EST were also seen in treatment four and one, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that use of 3g/hen/day extra calcium carbonate before starting the dark period in laying hens improves egg quality traits and therefore more benefits to egg producers and more healthy eggs for consumers.
  M. Emadi and H. Kermanshahi
  In order to study the effect of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn- soybean meal based diet containing levels of TRP (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%) was used. In a completely randomized design with four treatments of five replicates each, and 10 chickens per replicate, 200, Ross male broiler chickens from 0-49 days were studied. For performance, feed intake and body weight gain recorded weekly. For carcass characteristics, at the end of experiment at 49 days of age, one chicken from each replicate of treatments were weighed, slaughtered and the relative weight of liver, pancreas, spleen, heart and abdominal fat pad measured. By Roche colour fan, skin colour was also measured. In all weeks the amounts of feed intake, weight gain and feed to gain ratio in broilers fed treatments were not significantly different. Addition of TRP into the diets significantly (P< 0.05) decreased relative abdominal fat pad and heart weights to live body weight. Under the conditions of this experiment, it was concluded that TRP may improve carcass quality and leaner meat would be predictable. Use of TRP as a reducing heart weight factor, may show some improve in circulatory and respiratory systems that needs to be clarified.
  E. Maroufyan and H. Kermanshahi
  In a completely randomized design with 3*3 factorial arrangements and 4 replicates, 360 day-old Ross male broiler chickens were used to evaluate the effect of different levels of a locally grown rapeseed meal (RSM) supplemented with iodine on performance, organs weight and thyroid hormones of broiler chickens. The RSM was used at the levels of 0.0 (control), 7.5 and 15.0 percent for 7 weeks. The iodine levels added into the diets were 0.35 (NRC, 1994 recommendation, control), 0.75 and 1.05 mg/Kg. Feed intake and feed to gain ratio were affected by added levels of RSM during the starter (0-21 d), grower (21-42), finisher(42-49) and overall (0-49 d) feeding periods (P< 0.05). Body weight gain was not affected by treatments in any periods. Added high levels of RSM significantly increased the relative weights of liver, spleen (P< 0.05) and decreased the weights of abdominal fat pad (P< 0.05). Adding levels of RSM were also significantly increased the concentration of serum tri-idotyronine (T3) at 42 days of age and the concentration of serum thyroxin (T4) at 21 days of age (P< 0.05), while adding iodine into the diets had no significant effect among treatments. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was not significantly affected by adding RSM into the diets at 21 and 42 days of age. Under the conditions of this study it was concluded that adding RSM into the diets of broilers decreases their performance. Spite the non significant effect of iodine on performance of broilers, due to the presence of glucosinolates in RSM, use of more iodine needs to be considered.
  M. Emadi and H. Kermanshahi
  In order to study the effect of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) on the activity of some blood enzymes in broiler chicken, a 49 days experiment using corn-soybean meal based diet containing four levels of TRP (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%) as treatments with five replicates in a completely randomized design was conducted. 200 Ross male broiler chicken from 0-49 days were housed in 20 pens and received feed and water ad-libitum. At 21 and 42 days of age, one blood serum sample from each replicate of treatment was collected. Inclusion of TRP significantly increased LDH and AST enzymes (P< 0.05). TRP in the diets also significantly decreased ALT and ALP enzymes (P< 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that TRP might have some positive effects on liver enzymes that directly or indirectly reflects a healthier liver status in broiler chickens.
  M.A. Maghoul , H. Nassiri Moghadam , H. Kermanshahi and M. Danesh Mesgaran
  An in vivo experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine supplementation (Betafine) as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. The diets containing four betaine levels at 0, 33, 66 and 100% in replacement for choline and tow basal diets (containing of 2.5% oil and lacking of oil) were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a 2x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates of 10 birds/replicate. Three hundred twenty-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed in cages and fed the experimental diets from 0-49 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At 49 days of age, one bird from each replicate was selected for blood sample collection and comparison of carcass characteristics. Betaine replacement for choline had no effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio but, a significant different (p<0.05) in body weight gain (at 0-3 and 3-6 weeks of age) and feed conversion ratio (at 0-3 weeks of age) was observed among different treatments. Betaine as a replacement for choline increased the breast weight and reduced the abdominal fat (p<0.05), but had no significant effect on thigh, liver, fat of liver percentages and blood parameters. The present findings indicated that although replacement of betaine instead of choline in diets of broiler didn’t improved significantly feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, percentage of carcass characteristics and blood parameters, but resulted in significant reduction of abdominal fat and significant increase of breast meat.
  V. Khaksar , A. Golian , H. Kermanshahi , A.R. Movasseghiand and A. Jamshidi
  A complete randomized design experiment with 9 dietary treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotic Fermacto® and digestible amino acid levels on performance, gut development and transit time of feed of Ross male broiler chicks. Each diet was fed to five pens of 12 chicks each, during starter (0-21 day), grower (22-41 day) and finisher (42-47 day) periods. Three diets were provided to meet 100 (control), 95 and 90% of Recommended Digestible Amino Acids (RDAA) of starter, grower and finisher periods. The starter and grower diets were further subdivided into 3 parts and supplemented with 0.0, 0.0; 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0, 1.0 g kg 1 Fermacto®, respectively. Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was recorded and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was calculated during 1-21, 22-41, 42-47 day. The carcass yield and cuts of broiler chicks were measured at the end of the experiment. Chick weight was recorded individually to determine the uniformity at day 7, 21 and 47. Chromic oxide at the rate of 0.3% was added to each diet to determine the Gastrointestinal Transit Time (GTT) at day 16 and 32. Tissues from the midpoint of ileum and jejunum was excised to assay the lactobacillus bacteria counts in ileum and villi height, surface area and lamina propria thickness in jejunum of chicks at 21 day of age. Fermacto® supplementation of starter and grower diets improved BWG, FCR, breast yield and gut development regardless of DAA levels in diet. Addition of more than 1.0 g kg 1 Fermacto® in the grower diet did not further improve the BWG or FCR. Flock uniformity was increased (p<0.05) by the inclusion of Fermacto® in diet as compared to non-Fermacto® treated at day 21 when fed 100 or 90% RDAA diets. Fermacto® prolonged the GTT of feed and increased (p<0.05) the ileal lactobacillus counts and improved the jejunal histological traits. Performance and breast yield of broiler chickens fed 95% RDAA diet was similar to those fed control diet, whereas birds fed diet contained 90% RDAA were significantly smaller and less efficient as compared to control birds. Formulating diet based on 95% RDAA did not have a negative effect on performance, but may decrease environmental pollution and cost of broiler chicken production. A 10% decrease in RDAA increased AF, lowered GTT, ileal lactobacillus counts and weakened jejunum morphometry.
  M.R. Akbari , H. Kermanshahi , H. Nassiri Moghaddam , A.R. Heravi Moussavi and J. Tavakkol Afshari
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of additional supplementation of the diet with vitamin A, vitamin E and zinc, on blood cells, organ weights and humoral immune response of broiler chickens fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet. In a completely randomized design with 2󫎾 factorial arrangement, 224 day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 32 groups. Factors and their levels were as follows: vitamin A (basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 10,000 IU kg 1 retinol acetate); vitamin E (basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 50 IU kg 1 -tocopherol acetate) and Zinc (basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 60 mg kg 1 Zn using zinc oxide). Sampling for blood and organ weights were done at 21 day of age. Humoral immune response were evaluated by intramuscular injection of Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) at 21 day of age followed by bleeding at 7 and 14 day post injection. Supplementation of the diet with vitamin A, vitamin E, or zinc significantly (p = 0.001) increased the number of White Blood Cells (WBC); but had no effect on Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts, Hematocrit (Ht) and Haemoglobin (Hb). Vitamin A supplementation significantly (p = 0.016) decreased the proportion of monocytes in total number of counted monocytes, lymphocytes and heterophils. Supplementation with zinc significantly decreased (p = 0.003) the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes. A significant vitamin A vitamin E zinc interaction was found for WBC counts and for the proportions of lymphocytes and heterophils (p = 0.001). Supplementing the diet with either vitamin A or vitamin E had no significant effect on relative weights of liver, bursa and spleen. However, addition of zinc to the diet significantly (p = 0.019) increased relative weight of spleen. Supplementation of the diet with vitamin E or zinc (but not with vitamin A), significantly increased total antibody titres against SRBC. The results suggest that additional supplementation of the diet with vitamin A, vitamin E, or zinc can be effective in general immune responses by affecting blood cell proportions and also indicated that zinc can be considered as an anti-stress nutrient, regarding the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio index. It also, indicates that vitamin E is more important than vitamin A or zinc in persistency of an immune response.
  A. Hassanabadi , H. Nassiri-Moghaddam , H. Kermanshahi , F. Eftekhar-Shahroodi and M.D. Mesgaran
  An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of microbial phytase on apparent digestibility of Amino Acids (AA) and crude protein in female broiler chickens. The 240 day-old female broiler chicks were wing banded, weighted and randomly allocated to six treatment groups with 4 replicates of 10 chicks in each battery cages appropriate for completely randomized design. The treatments included supplementation of 6 dietary levels of phytase (0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000 and 1,250 FTU kg 1) during 0-28 days of age. All chicks were fed a nutritionally adequate typical commercial broiler starter and grower ration (adequate in phosphorus and calcium). During days 21 to 24 excreta totally were collected for AA and CP analyzing. 250 and 500 FTU kg 1 phytase significantly improved digestibility of amino acids (except than alanine, valine and threonine) and CP (p<0.05). Phytase had no significant effect on live body weight, feed intake and feed efficiency (p>0.05) of the broiler chicks up to 28 days of age.
  H. Kermanshahi , M. R. Akbari , M. Maleki and M. Behgar
  A feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the performance, digestibility of nutrients and blood enzymes of broiler chickens. In a randomized complete-block design with 4 blocks and 4 treatments, 112 day-old male broiler chickens were divided into 16 groups of 7 chicks each. Treatments consisted of three levels of AFB1 in starter diet (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mg kg 1) along with a control group (no AFB1). Feed intake and daily weight gain were recorded weekly. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28, one bird from each replicate was weighed and humanly killed to collect blood samples and to weigh proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, pancreas, heart, liver, spleen, bursa of fabricius and brain. From day 18, chromic oxide-marked feed was fed to the birds for 4 consecutive days. On day 21, feces collection was made every 6 h and a pooled sample was used for determination of nutrients digestibility. Feeding AFB1 significantly decreased feed intake and body weight gain and increased relative weight of liver (p< 0.05). Relative weight of brain decreased on day 7 and then showed a significant increase by day 28 (p< 0.05). AFB1 significantly (P< 0.05) increased serum concentration of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased serum concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Feeding AFB1 at 0.8 and 1.2 mg kg 1 diet, caused a significant reduction in AME content of the diet, organic matter, dry matter, calcium and phosphorus (p< 0.05). Digestibility of fat and protein were not significantly affected by feeding AFB1. A significant reduction in uric acid excretion was induced due to AFB1 inclusion into the diet (p< 0.05). This study demonstrated that feeding AFB1 at the used levels can impair digestibility of nutrients, especially calcium and phosphorus. Furthermore, alongside with other negative effects, AFB1 may have some adverse effects on the liver and brain of broilers.
  H. Kermanshahi
  A trial was conducted to evaluate the replacement efficacy of Regular Oyster Shell (ROS) with Mine Oyster Shell (MOS) on the performance of 240, 44 weeks Hy-Line W-36 laying hens for 3 periods of 28 days. In a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates as blocks, 5 levels of 0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0% MOS were replaced with ROS based on their calcium contents. Diets were formulated as Hy-Line manual recommendation for 44-58 weeks laying hens. Feed intake, hen day and hen housed egg production, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, number of broken and cracked eggs and specific gravity of the random sample eggs were recorded at their appropriate times. Hen day and hen housed egg production significantly decreased (p< 0.0.5) as the ratio of MOS in the diets increased. The effect of MOS on shell thickness and specific gravity were significantly increased (p< 0.05) and the highest values for both traits were for 25% MOS + 75% ROS. The lowest incident of broken eggs was for 25 and 100% replacement of MOS. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that MOS might be a suitable calcium source for laying hens when a better egg quality is concern.
  M. Emadi and H. Kermanshahi
  In order to study the effect of Turmeric Rhizome Powder (TRP) on immunity responses in broiler chickens, in a completely randomised design, an experiment with 200 day-old Ross male broiler chickens from 0-49 days with 4 treatments and 5 replicates of 10 birds each was conducted. A corn-soybean meal based diet containing levels of TRP (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%) was used. For measuring immunity responses (white blood cell, immunoglobulins A, G and M), at 14 days of age, one bird from each replicate of treatments was challenged with 0.2 mL Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC, 5%) and blood samples were collected at 21 and 42 days of age. Inclusion of TRP significantly (p< 0.05) increased immunoglobulins IgA, IgM and IgG (IgY). TRP inclusion into the diets also significantly decreased the ratio of monocytes at 42 days of age (p< 0.05). Under the condition of this study, it was concluded that TRP might have some positive effects on immunity response and may be used as immune system fortification in broiler chickens.
  N. Bidar , M. Rezaei , H. Sayyah Zadeh and H. Kermanshahi
  The effect of feeding pre-starter diet during three periods (4, 7 and 10 days) with different sodium levels (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45%) on performance, carcass characteristics and serum electrolytes levels, in a completely randomized design and 42 days of study, 240 Ross (308) male broiler chickens were evaluated in a factorial arrangements of 3*3. By increasing sodium levels, dietary electrolyte balance increased (200, 250 and 300 mEq kg 1). Treatments were compared with a control diet (starter diet with 0.20% sodium). Chickens were fed with starter diet to 21 days of age after feeding pre-starter diet. The results indicated that feeding pre-starter diet during 7 and 10 days increased feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio at 42 days of age when compared with that of starter diet (control diet) (p< 0.05). Feeding pre-starter diet during 7 and 10 days increased feed intake in starter period and weight gain in first 4 weeks of study (p< 0.05). Feeding pre-starter diet with 0.30% sodium and 250 mEq kg 1 dietary electrolyte balance increased feed intake in first 2 weeks and weight gain in starter period (p< 0.05). Feeding per-starter diet with 0.30% sodium and 250 mEq kg 1 dietary electrolyte balance during 10 days showed the lowest feed conversion ratio in second and fourth weeks of study (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference among the treatments for mortality, serum electrolytes levels and carcass characteristics at the end of experiment. The results of the present study indicated that feeding pre-starter diet with 0.30% sodium and 250 mEq kg 1 dietary electrolyte balances for 7 days have positive effects on performance especially in first weeks of life.
  A. Hassanabadi , H. Nassiri-Moghaddam , H. Kermanshahi and G. Golian
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of microbial phytase on productive traits and apparent digestibility of Amino Acids (AA) in male broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicates of 12 male broilers, for a total of 300 Ross broiler chicks. Broiler chickens were fed similar diets containing 5 levels of phytase (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 FTU/kg of diet) from 1-28 days of age. Excreta were quantitatively collected from 21-24 days of the experiment. The excreta stored at -20癈, freeze-dried and analyzed for amino acids. During the experiment, Body Weight (BW), Average Daily Gain (ADG), Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were measured weekly. Total 250 and 500 FTU phytase supplementation significantly increased (p<0.05) apparent AA digestibility. Higher levels of phytase decreased AA digestibility in compare to 250 and 500 FTU. Phytase had no significant effect (p>0.05) on body weight, feed intake and feed efficiency up to 28 days of age.
  A. Hesabi nameghi , H. Nassiri Moghaddam , J.Tavakkol afshari and H. Kermanshahi
  In order to study the effect of different levels of dietary vitamin E (0, 50,75,IU kg 1 diets)and L-Ascorbic Acid (0,500 and 1000ppm in drinking water) on performance, immune response and some blood parameters, 432 male commercial broilers were allocated to 9 treatments with 4 replications (12 broilers in each) for 42 days (starter, 0-21day, grower, 2-42 day) in factorial arrangement (33) based on completely randomized design. Immunity was assessed as antibody production to Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC). Chickens were inoculated (18day) intramuscular with 0.5 mL of 5% SRBC. The injection with SRBC was repeated 12 day later. Performance (0-21day)was not influenced by Vitamin E (VE). Daily weight gain (22-42day) was improved in chicks fed diets with supplemented 75 IUkg 1 VE. Lymphoid organ weights and antibody titer for primary and secondary responses to SRBC were increased by 50 IU kg 1 VE. Humoral immunologic response showed that antibody titer to NDV and IBV were highest (p< 0.05) in groups receiving 75 IU kg 1 diet VE. Adding 1000 ppm Vitamin C (VC) in drinking water significantly increased (p< 0.05) antibody responses to SRBC, daily weight gain (22-42day) and body weight gain in 42day. Secondary responses to SRBC, antibody titer to NDV and IBV were improved (p< 0.05) by supplemented 500 ppm VC in drinking water. Overall, the results of this experiment showed that VE and VC supplemental, improved some of performance parameters and humoral immune response in broiler chicks, respectively. This data suggest that optimum growth and humoral immune response may be achieved at supplemental level of VE of 50 IU kg 1 and VC at 500 ppm.
  K. Taibipour and H. Kermanshahi
  In a completely randomized design with 33 factorial arrangements and 4 replicates, 144 day-old Hubbard classic male broiler chickens were used to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of tallow and NSP-degrading enzyme supplements on nutrient efficiency of broiler chickens. The tallow was used at the levels of 0.0, 2.0 and 4.05%. The enzyme levels added into the diets were 0.0, 0.05 and 0.10%. For nutrient digestibility using Cr2O3 as indigestible marker, feces samples were collected from 18-21 days of age. Two birds from each replicate of treatment were killed for ileal digesta collection. Apparent metabolizable energy (aME) in all treatments affected by tallow and enzyme levels (p<0.01). Increasing the level of tallow in the diet significantly reduced apparent lipid digestibility of feces (ALDf) and enzyme addition significantly improved it (p<0.01). This improvement was highest when the level of tallow in the diet was 4%. Apparent protein digestibility (APD) was not affected by treatments but improved when enzyme added to each level of tallow. Apparent lipid digestibility of ileal digesta (ALDi) was significantly reduced by levels of tallow but enzyme addition improved it (p<0.01).
  M. Rezaei , A. Attar , A. Ghodratnama and H. Kermanshahi
  An experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of 3 levels of fat (1, 3, 5%) and 2 levels of L-carnitine (0 and 250 mg kg-1) on 360 male Ross broiler chicks in a factorial arrangement (2x3) with completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 15 chicks in each replicates. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and were fed to chicks from 1 to 42 days of ages. During the experiment feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. Mortality was measured throughout the experiment. At 42 days of ages 4 birds from each treatment were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics and serum composition. Data of the experiment were analyzed by GLM procedure of SAS. Increasing of fat in the diets significantly improved performance of chicks in grower (22 to 42 days) and whole period (1 to 42 days) of the experiment (p< 0.05). Chicks fed with diets containing 3% fat had the highest breast meat and lowest abdominal fat percentage (p< 0.05). Adding L-carnitine to diets had not significant effect on performance and carcass characteristics. Interaction between fat and L-carnitine was significant on liver weight (p< 0.05). The levels of triglyceride (TG) and glucose in blood serum were affected by increasing of dietary fat (p< 0.05). Adding L-carnitine to diets significantly decreased the level of serum triglyceride, cholesterol and VLDL (p< 0.05). Dietary treatments had not significant effect on mortality.
  M. Daneshyar , H. Kermanshahi and A.G. Golian
  An experiment with 250 day-old Ross male broilers was conducted to investigate the differences of blood gas parameters, internal organ weights and perfosrmance of cold induced ascitic and healthy broilers in a 6 week period. These chickens were divided to two groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was bred in Normal Temperature (NT treatment) but other group was set in Low Temperature (LT treatment) to induce ascites. Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Intake (FI) were measured weekly. Blood gases analyses were measured from day 14 afterwards. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment, 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected, weighed, slaughtered, heart was removed and its parts weight determined. Moreover weights of liver, lung, gut (empty weight) and spleen were assayed. The results of blood gases analyses showed that pH, bicarbonate and pCO2 were similar for two groups, while pO2 of LT group was lower (p 0.05) than that of NT group in weeks 3, 5 and 6. Also O2 saturation of LT group was lower (p 0.05) than that of NT in weeks 5 and 6. Despite of some differences between two treatments for internal organ weights such as liver, lung, heart, empty gut and spleen weights, these differences were not significant. FI in first two weeks of age was similar for two groups then FI of LT group began to decrease when compared to NT group and at the ages of 3, 4, 5 weeks and all of the study period (6 weeks) FI was lower (p 0.05) than that of NT treatment. BWG of LT group at 4th week of age and total period of the study was lower (p 0.05) than that of NT group. Right Ventricle (RV) and RV to Total Ventricle (TV) ratio of LT treatment was greater (p 0.05) than that of NT group. Mortality caused by ascites in total period of study for LT treatment was significantly (p 0.05) higher than that of NT group (8.8 vs 2.4%). Under the conditions of this study it was concluded that inducing ascites by decreasing temperature may impact performance and changes pO2 and O2 saturation of broiler chickens.
  M. Elahi Torshizi , F. Eftekhari Shahroudi and H. Kermanshahi
  A study was conducted to determine the effect of environment, nutrition and management on egg production of broiler breeders from start to peak of production. Rearing and production records of 11 Arian broiler breeder flocks, in 3 farms between 1993 and 2000, including age of broiler breeder, age of maturity, flock number, farm number, density, feeder space/hen, body weight at 20, 22 and 24 weeks, protein and energy intake/day and week, cumulative feed intake in each age, weekly body weight, season effect, diet energy and presence or lack of canal under waterers were used. All records processed in excel software and transferred to JMP 3.1.2 software for analysis. Records tested for normality and then analyzed with multiple regression analysis procedure. The results of the current study indicated that, age of broiler breeders has a dramatic effect on egg production. By delaying age of maturity after 24 weeks, uniformity and egg production in Arian broiler breeders increased. Canals under waterer in some of the farms had a negative effect on mean egg production (63 vs 52%). In the seasons of spring and autumn, mean egg production was higher than those of summer and winter (80.03, 81.08, 50.16 and 60%, respectively). The result showed that body weight at 24 weeks is a better indication of subsequent flock performance than body weight at 20 or 22 weeks. By increasing age and protein intake from 23 to 27 g/hen/day, egg production decreased. Conversely, by increasing age and energy intake, egg production increased. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that protein intake should not be increased from 23g/hen/day at this period. Heavier broiler breeders, who get more energy intake/day, may produce more eggs too.
 
 
 
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