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Articles by H. H Peng
Total Records ( 3 ) for H. H Peng
  M. C Tsai , L Chen , J Zhou , Z Tang , T. F Hsu , Y Wang , Y. T Shih , H. H Peng , N Wang , Y Guan , S Chien and J. J. Chiu
 

Rationale: Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which are located in close proximity to endothelial cells (ECs), is critical in regulating vascular function. The role of flow-induced shear stress in the modulation of SMC phenotype has not been well defined.

Objective: The objective was to elucidate the role of shear stress on ECs in modulating SMC phenotype and its underlying mechanism.

Methods and Results: Application of shear stress (12 dyn/cm2) to ECs cocultured with SMCs modulated SMC phenotype from synthetic to contractile state, with upregulation of contractile markers, downregulation of proinflammatory genes, and decreased percentage of cells in the synthetic phase. Treating SMCs with media from sheared ECs induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, -, and - ligand binding activities; transfecting SMCs with specific small interfering (si)RNAs of PPAR- and -, but not -, inhibited shear induction of contractile markers. ECs exposed to shear stress released prostacyclin (PGI2). Transfecting ECs with PGI2 synthase-specific siRNA inhibited shear-induced activation of PPAR-/, upregulation of contractile markers, downregulation of proinflammatory genes, and decrease in percentage of SMCs in synthetic phase. Mice with PPAR- deficiency (compared with control littermates) showed altered SMC phenotype toward a synthetic state, with increased arterial contractility in response to angiotensin II.

Conclusions: These results indicate that laminar shear stress induces synthetic-to-contractile phenotypic modulation in SMCs through the activation of PPAR-/ by the EC-released PGI2. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the EC-SMC interplays and the protective homeostatic function of laminar shear stress in modulating SMC phenotype.

  S. F Chang , T. K Chang , H. H Peng , Y. T Yeh , D. Y Lee , C. R Yeh , J Zhou , C. K Cheng , C. A Chang and J. J. Chiu
 

Cell cycle regulation by differentiation signals is critical for eukaryote development. We investigated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, an important stimulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, in regulating cell cycle distribution in four osteoblast-like cell lines and mouse primary osteoblasts, and the underlying mechanisms. In all cells used, BMP-4 induced G0/G1 arrest. The molecular basis of the BMP-4 effect was analyzed, and the presentation on molecular mechanism is focused on human MG63 cells. BMP-4 induced p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions and hence cell differentiation but had no effects on the expressions of cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-2, -4, and -6. Using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that BMP-4-induced G0/G1 arrest, and p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions were mediated by BMP receptor type IA (BMPRIA)-specific Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad)1/5. BMP-4 induced transient phosphorylations of ERK; transfection of MG63 cells with ERK2, but not ERK1, -specific siRNA inhibited the BMP-4-induced responses in MG63 cells. Pretreatment of MG63 cells with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which blocks the cell-extracellular matrix interaction, or transfection with β3 integrin-specific siRNA inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. BMP-4 induced transient increases in associations of β3-integrin with focal adhesion kinase and Shc, the dominant-negative mutants of which inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. Our results indicate that BMP-4 induces G0/G1 arrest and hence differentiation in osteoblast-like cells through increased expressions of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1, which are mediated by BMPRIA-specific Smad1/5. The extracellular matrix/β3 integrin/ focal adhesion kinase/Shc/ERK2 signaling pathway is involved in these BMP-4-induced responses in osteoblast-like cells.

  P Khanna , T Yunkunis , H. S Muddana , H. H Peng , A August and C. Dong
 

Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is localized to the endothelial borders and the adherens junctions, which are regulated by changes in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, GTPases, and intracellular calcium. We previously showed that melanoma cells induce VE-cadherin disassembly through contact with human umbilical vein endothelial cells in coculture. However, the exact mechanism by which melanoma cells signal endothelial cells to induce VE-cadherin junction disassembly is not well understood. In this study, VE-cadherin junction disassembly was further examined under fluorescence microscopy. We found that melanoma-induced VE-cadherin junction disassembly and upregulation of p38 MAP kinase in endothelial cells is regulated by both soluble factors from melanomas, particularly interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and IL-1β, and through vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Neutralizing melanoma-secreted soluble factors reduced endothelial gap formation. Endothelial cells transfected with MAP kinase kinase 6, a direct activator of p38 MAP kinase, increased VE-cadherin-mediated gap formation, facilitating melanoma transendothelial migration. In contrast, endothelial cells transfected with small-interfering RNA against p38 MAP kinase expression largely prevented melanoma transendothelial migration in Boyden chamber experiments. These findings indicate that p38 MAP kinase proteins regulate VE-cadherin junction disassembly, facilitating melanoma migration across endothelial cells.

 
 
 
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