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Articles by H Yuan
Total Records ( 4 ) for H Yuan
  H Yuan , N Li and Y. Lai
 

Generating a phosphate prodrug is one of the common approaches for circumventing poor solubility issues of a parent drug. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was determined in rat intestine mucosa scraps, human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to characterize in vitro models for ALP-mediated phosphate prodrug conversion. In addition, fosphenytoin and fosfluconazole were used as probe prodrugs to evaluate the models. The highest amount of ALP was detected in rat intestinal mucosa scraps, whereas ALP in 5-day cultured MDCK cells was minimal. As anticipated, ALP levels correlated with the parent drug conversion; the shortest cleavage half-life (t1/2) was observed in rat mucosa scraps; and MDCK cells showed the slowest conversion. Furthermore, the polarized conversion for the prodrugs was observed in Caco-2 monolayer cells, suggesting the polarized localization of alkaline in differentiated Caco-2 cells. The rate of ALP-mediated conversion was prodrug concentration-dependent with Michaelis-Menten constants of 1160 and 351 µM for fosphenytoin and fosfluconazole, respectively, determined in Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that whereas the intestinal mucosa scraps reserved the highest ALP activities and were shown as a promising in vitro tool for screening the bioconversion of phosphate prodrug, Caco-2 monolayers could provide the predictive information of bioconversion and further offer the capability in characterizing the permeability of prodrug and parent drug.

  H Yuan , N Li and Y. Lai
 

Generating a phosphate prodrug is one of the common approaches for circumventing poor solubility issues of a parent drug. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was determined in rat intestine mucosa scraps, human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to characterize in vitro models for ALP-mediated phosphate prodrug conversion. In addition, fosphenytoin and fosfluconazole were used as probe prodrugs to evaluate the models. The highest amount of ALP was detected in rat intestinal mucosa scraps, whereas ALP in 5-day cultured MDCK cells was minimal. As anticipated, ALP levels correlated with the parent drug conversion; the shortest cleavage half-life (t1/2) was observed in rat mucosa scraps; and MDCK cells showed the slowest conversion. Furthermore, the polarized conversion for the prodrugs was observed in Caco-2 monolayer cells, suggesting the polarized localization of alkaline in differentiated Caco-2 cells. The rate of ALP-mediated conversion was prodrug concentration-dependent with Michaelis-Menten constants of 1160 and 351 µM for fosphenytoin and fosfluconazole, respectively, determined in Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that whereas the intestinal mucosa scraps reserved the highest ALP activities and were shown as a promising in vitro tool for screening the bioconversion of phosphate prodrug, Caco-2 monolayers could provide the predictive information of bioconversion and further offer the capability in characterizing the permeability of prodrug and parent drug.

  Z. G Xu , L. N Miao , Y. C Cui , Y Jia , H Yuan and M. Wu
 

Background. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the roles played by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) in the AT1 expression in glomerular cells exposed to high glucose (HG) and diabetic glomeruli remain unclear. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the role of 12-LO in the AT1 expression in glomerular cells and glomeruli under diabetic conditions.

Methods. Mesangial cells (MCs), podocytes and glomeruli isolated from rats were used in this study. The rats fed a high fat diet received low-dose streptozotocin to make type 2 diabetes. The 12-LO product 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE] was infused to rats by osmotic mini-pump. Morphometric measurement for glomerular volume, competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression, western blot and immunohistochemistry for protein expression were performed, respectively.

Results. Both the 12(S)-HETE and HG increased AT1 protein expression in MCs and podocytes. Furthermore, the levels of the AT1 were significantly higher in glomeruli derived from 12(S)-HETE-treated rats compared with control rats. In addition, HG-induced AT1 expression was significantly reduced by the 12-LO inhibitor cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy--cynanocinnamate (CDC). Compared with the non-diabetic controls, DN rats showed significant glomerular hypertrophy and albuminuria. This was associated with significant increases in AT1 protein expression. These abnormalities were prevented by treatment of the CDC.

Conclusions. These results indicate that AT1 expression is enhanced, at least in part, by 12-LO in the type 2 diabetic glomeruli, and 12-LO inhibition can ameliorate DN progression through downregulation of AT1 expression.

  P Dai , A. K Stewart , F Chebib , A Hsu , J Rozenfeld , D Huang , D Kang , V Lip , H Fang , H Shao , X Liu , F Yu , H Yuan , M Kenna , D. T Miller , Y Shen , W Yang , I Zelikovic , O. S Platt , D Han , S. L Alper and B. L. Wu
 

Mutations of the human SLC26A4/PDS gene constitute the most common cause of syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Definition of the SLC26A4 mutation spectrum among different populations with sensorineural hearing loss is important for development of optimal genetic screening services for congenital hearing impairment. We screened for SLC26A4 mutations among Chinese and U.S. subjects with hearing loss, using denaturing HPLC (DHPLC) and direct DNA sequencing. Fifty-two of 55 Chinese subjects with deafness accompanied by enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) exhibited at least one mutant SLC26A4 allele, whereas SLC26A4 mutations were found in only 2 of 116 deaf Chinese patients without EVA. The spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations differed among Chinese and U.S. subjects and included 10 previously unreported SLC26A4 variants: 4 in the Chinese population (p.E303Q, p.X329, p.X467, p.X573) and 6 in the U.S. population (p.V250A, p.D266N, p.F354S, p.D697A, p.K715N, p.E737D). Among the seven novel in-frame missense mutations, five encoded SLC26A4 proteins with substantially reduced Cl/anion exchange activity as expressed and measured in Xenopus oocytes, but four of these were sufficiently active to allow study of anion selectivity. The only mutant polypeptide exhibiting complete loss of anion exchange function, p.E303Q, was expressed at or near the oocyte surface at near-wild-type levels. Two variants, p.F354S and p.E737D, displayed selective reduction in relative rate of Cl/HCO3 exchange compared with similarly measured rates of Cl/Cl and Cl/I exchange. Our data show that mutation analysis of the SLC26A4 gene is of high diagnostic yield among subjects with deafness and bilateral EVA in both China and the U.S. However, the pathogenicity of monoallelic SLC26A4 gene variants in patients with hearing loss remains unclear in many instances.

 
 
 
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