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Articles by H Wu
Total Records ( 10 ) for H Wu
  X Fan , Y Liu , J Jiang , Z Ma , H Wu , T Liu , M Liu , X Li and H. Tang

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as a class of small regulated RNAs, and the alterations of miRNAs are implicated in the initiation and progression of human cancers. Our study shows that inhibition of miR-20a in OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell line could suppress, whereas overexpression of miR-20a could enhance cell long-term proliferation and invasion. We also confirmed amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a direct target gene of miR-20a. Furthermore, suppression of APP expression could also promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion, which is consistent with the results of miR-20a overexpression. Therefore, we concluded that the regulation of APP is an important mechanism for miR-20a to promote proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells.

  C Bian , F Zhang , F Wang , Z Ling , M Luo , H Wu , Y Sun , J Li , B Li , J Zhu , L Tang , Y Zhou , Q Shi , Y Ji , L Tian , G Lin , Y Fan , N Wang and B. Sun

DNA immunization is an efficient method for high-affinity monoclonal antibody generation. Here, we describe the generation of several high-quality monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an important marker for kidney abnormality and dysfunction, with a combination method of DNA priming and protein boost. The mAbs generated could bind to RBP4 with high sensitivity and using these mAbs, an immunocolloidal gold fast test strip was constructed. The strip can give a result in <5 min and is very sensitive with a detection limit of about 1 ng/ml. A small-scale clinical test revealed that the result of this strip was well in accordance with that of an enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay kit currently available on the market. Consequently, it could be useful for more convenient and faster RBP4 determination in the clinic.

  L Griffith , P Raina , H Wu , B Zhu and L. Stathokostas

Objectives: to investigate the population impact on functional disability of chronic conditions individually and in combination.

Methods: data from 9,008 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) were used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for chronic conditions after adjusting for confounding variables. Functional disability was measured using activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activity of daily living (IADL).

Results: five chronic conditions (foot problems, arthritis, cognitive impairment, heart problems and vision) made the largest contribution to ADL- and IADL-related functional disabilities. There was variation in magnitude and ranking of population attributable risk (PAR) by age, sex and definition of disability. All chronic conditions taken simultaneously accounted for about 66% of the ADL-related disability and almost 50% of the IADL-related disability.

Conclusions: in community-dwelling older adults, foot problems, arthritis, cognitive impairment, heart problems and vision were the major determinants of disability. Attempts to reduce disability burden in older Canadians should target these chronic conditions; however, preventive interventions will be most efficient if they recognize the differences in the drivers of PAR by sex, age group and type of functional disability being targeted.

  K Zhu , S. S Devesa , H Wu , S. H Zahm , I Jatoi , W. F Anderson , G. E Peoples , L. G Maxwell , E Granger , J. F Potter and K. A. McGlynn

The U.S. active-duty military population may differ from the U.S. general population in its exposure to cancer risk factors and access to medical care. Yet, it is not known if cancer incidence rates differ between these two populations. We therefore compared the incidence of four cancers common in U.S. adults (lung, colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers) and two cancers more common in U.S. young adults (testicular and cervical cancers) in the military and general populations. Data from the Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR) of the Department of Defense and the nine cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) of the National Cancer Institute for the years 1990 to 2004 for persons with ages 20 to 59 years were analyzed. Incidence rates were significantly lower in the military population for colorectal cancer in White men, lung cancer in White and Black men and White women, and cervical cancer in Black women. In contrast, incidence rates of breast and prostate cancers were significantly higher in the military among Whites and Blacks. Incidence rates of testicular cancer did not differ between ACTUR and SEER. Although the numbers of diagnoses among military personnel were relatively small for temporal trend analysis, we found a more prominent increase in prostate cancer in ACTUR than in SEER. Overall, these results suggest that cancer patterns may differ between military and nonmilitary populations. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore contributing factors. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1740–5)

  D Summerer , H Wu , B Haase , Y Cheng , N Schracke , C. F Stahler , M. S Chee , P. F Stahler and M. Beier

The lack of efficient high-throughput methods for enrichment of specific sequences from genomic DNA represents a key bottleneck in exploiting the enormous potential of next-generation sequencers. Such methods would allow for a systematic and targeted analysis of relevant genomic regions. Recent studies reported sequence enrichment using a hybridization step to specific DNA capture probes as a possible solution to the problem. However, so far no method has provided sufficient depths of coverage for reliable base calling over the entire target regions. We report a strategy to multiply the enrichment performance and consequently improve depth and breadth of coverage for desired target sequences by applying two iterative cycles of hybridization with microfluidic Geniom biochips. Using this strategy, we enriched and then sequenced the cancer-related genes BRCA1 and TP53 and a set of 1000 individual dbSNP regions of 500 bp using Illumina technology. We achieved overall enrichment factors of up to 1062-fold and average coverage depths of 470-fold. Combined with high coverage uniformity, this resulted in nearly complete consensus coverages with >86% of target region covered at 20-fold or higher. Analysis of SNP calling accuracies after enrichment revealed excellent concordance, with the reference sequence closely mirroring the previously reported performance of Illumina sequencing conducted without sequence enrichment.

  A Itsara , H Wu , J. D Smith , D. A Nickerson , I Romieu , S. J London and E. E. Eichler

While copy number variation (CNV) is an active area of research, de novo mutation rates within human populations are not well characterized. By focusing on large (>100 kbp) events, we estimate the rate of de novo CNV formation in humans by analyzing 4394 transmissions from human pedigrees with and without neurocognitive disease. We show that a significant limitation in directly measuring genome-wide CNV mutation is accessing DNA derived from primary tissues as opposed to cell lines. We conservatively estimated the genome-wide CNV mutation rate using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays to analyze whole-blood derived DNA from asthmatic trios, a collection in which we observed no elevation in the prevalence of large CNVs. At a resolution of ~30 kb, nine de novo CNVs were observed from 772 transmissions, corresponding to a mutation rate of µ = 1.2 x 10–2 CNVs per genome per transmission (µ = 6.5 x 10–3 for CNVs >500 kb). Combined with previous estimates of CNV prevalence and assuming a model of mutation-selection balance, we estimate significant purifying selection for large (>500 kb) events at the genome-wide level to be s = 0.16. Supporting this, we identify de novo CNVs in 717 multiplex autism pedigrees from the AGRE collection and observe a fourfold enrichment (P = 1.4 x 10–3) for de novo CNVs in cases of multiplex autism versus unaffected siblings, suggesting that many de novo CNV mutations contribute a subtle, but significant risk for autism. We observe no parental bias in the origin or transmission of CNVs among any of the cohorts studied.

  H Wu and Z. Zhang

We utilize the recovered gradient by the polynomial-preserving recovery to enhance the eigenvalue approximation of the Laplace operator under adaptive meshes. Superconvergence rate is established and numerical tests on benchmark problems support our theoretical findings.

  A Uryash , H Wu , J Bassuk , P Kurlansky , M. A Sackner and J. A. Adams

Low-amplitude pulses to the vasculature increase pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium. This activates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) to promote NO release and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Descent of the dicrotic notch on the arterial pulse waveform and a-to-b ratio (a/b; where a is the height of the pulse amplitude and b is the height of the dicrotic notch above the end-diastolic level) reflects vasodilator (increased a/b) and vasoconstrictor effects (decreased a/b) due to NO level change. Periodic acceleration (pGz) (motion of the supine body head to foot on a platform) provides systemic additional pulsatile shear stress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not pGz applied to rats produced endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and increased NO production, and whether the latter was regulated by the Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Male rats were anesthetized and instrumented, and pGz was applied. Sodium nitroprusside, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), and wortmannin (WM; to block Akt/PI3K pathway) were administered to compare changes in a/b and mean aortic pressure. Descent of the dicrotic notch occurred within 2 s of initiating pGz. Dose-dependent increase of a/b and decrease of mean aortic pressure took place with SNP. l-NAME produced a dose-dependent rise in mean aortic pressure and decrease of a/b, which was blunted with pGz. In the presence of WM, pGz did not decrease aortic pressure or increase a/b. WM also abolished the pGz blunting effect on blood pressure and a/b of l-NAME-treated animals. eNOS expression was increased in aortic tissue after pGz. This study indicates that addition of low-amplitude pulses to circulation through pGz produces endothelial-dependent vasodilatation due to increased NO in rats, which is mediated via activation of eNOS, in part, by the Akt/PI3K pathway.

  H Li , Y Bao , A Xu , X Pan , J Lu , H Wu , H Lu , K Xiang and W. Jia

Objective: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a hormone primarily secreted by liver, has recently been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in animal models. This study investigated the association of serum FGF21 levels with insulin secretion and sensitivity, as well as circulating parameters of lipid metabolism and hepatic enzymes in Chinese subjects.

Design: Serum FGF21 levels were determined by ELISA in 134 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 101 isolated-impaired fasting glucose, and 118 isolated-impaired glucose tolerance (I-IGT) Chinese subjects, and their association with parameters of adiposity, glucose, and lipid profiles, and levels of liver injury markers was studied. In a subgroup of this study, the hyperglycemic clamp technique was performed in 31 NGT, 17 isolated-impaired fasting glucose, and 15 I-IGT subjects to measure insulin secretion and sensitivity to test the associations with serum FGF21.

Results: The serum FGF21 levels in I-IGT were significantly higher than NGT subjects [164.6 pg/ml (89.7, 261.0) vs. 111.8 pg/ml (58.0, 198.9); P < 0.05], and correlated positively with several parameters of adiposity. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed an independent association of serum FGF21 with serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and -glutamyltransferase (all P < 0.05). However, FGF21 did not correlate with insulin secretion and sensitivity, as measured by hyperglycemic clamp and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test.

Conclusions: Serum levels of FGF21 are closely related to adiposity, lipid metabolism, and biomarkers of liver injury but not insulin secretion and sensitivity in humans.

  B Huang , H Wu , N Hao , F Blombach , J van der Oost , X Li , X. C Zhang and Z. Rao

GTPase domains from members of the HflX protein family have their catalytic glutamine residue of the DxxGQ motif substituted by phenylalanine, while they are still able to hydrolyse GTP. This appears to challenge the traditional view of GTP hydrolysis mechanism of Ras-like GTPases. SsGBP from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus provided the first crystal structure of the HflX family. Here, we report structure-based mutagenesis analyses on SsGBP. Six-point mutations were individually introduced in the Ras-like GTPase domain including regions of P-loop, switches I and II. Intrinsic GTPase activities and thermal stabilities of these variants together with the wild-type full-length SsGBP and its isolated GTPase domain were analysed. Both functional and structural analyses of G235P and G235S mutants, which showed total and partial loss of the GTP hydrolyzing activity, respectively, support our hypothesis that the role of aligning a nucleophilic water molecule by the Ras Gln60 residue is replaced by the backbone amide group of Gly235 in SsGBP. Together with functional studies of other mutants, we conclude that the classical view of GTP hydrolysis mechanism likely remains the same in the HflX family with a twist in the entity of the nucleophilic alignment.

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